Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

  title={Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events},
  author={Alar Aab and Fernando Arqueros Mart{\'i}nez and Michel Aglietta and Ignacio Andr{\'e}s Minaya Flores and Imen Al Samarai and Montserrat Ortiz Ramis and Jaime Rosado V{\'e}lez and Jeffrey C. Allen and J. Alvarez Castillo and Alejandro Almela and Jos{\'e} Alejandro Castillo and Jaime Alvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and Rafael Alves Batista and Michelangelo Ambrosio and Luis A. Anchordoqui and Luis Alfredo Anchordoqui and Domenico Tegolo and J. J. Beatty and Vanessa Jaqueline Malpartida Aranda and Fernando Arqueros and Hern{\'a}n Asorey and Pedro Assis and Julien Aublin and Morris Ave and Michel Avenier and Gerardo Atencia Avila and Alina M. Badescu and P. Facal San Luis and Josef Georg B{\"a}uml and Colin Baus and James J. Beatty and Karl Heinz Dr Becker and Jos{\'e} Antonio Orihuela Bellido and C N Muller Berat and Mario Edoardo Bertaina and Xavier Bertou and Peter L. Biermann and A. Elliot Peisert and Miguel Lavado Blanco and Carla Bleve and Hartwig Bl{\"u}mer and Martina Boh{\'a}{\vc}ov{\'a} and Denise Boncioli and Carla Brenda Bonifazi and Raffaella Bonino and Nataliia Borodai and J. K. Kulbartz and I. M. Br{\^a}ncuş and Pedro Brogueira and William Christopher Brown and Peter Buchholz and Antonio Avila Bueno and Stijn J. Buitink and Mario Buscemi and B. Caccianiga and Barbara Caccianiga and Lorenzo Caccianiga and Marina Candusso and Laurentiu I. Caramete and Rossella Caruso and Antonella Castellina and Gabriella Cataldi and Lorenzo Cazon and Rosanna Cester and Alan G. Chavez and Alessandro Chiavassa and Jos{\'e} Augusto Chinellato and Jiř{\'i} Chudoba and Marco Cilmo and Roger William Clay and Giuseppe Cocciolo and Roberta Colalillo and Andree Coleman and Laura Collica and Maria Rita Coluccia and Ricardo Alves da Conceiç{\~a}o and Fernando R. L. Contreras and Matthew James Cooper and R. R. Sauerwein and St{\'e}phane Coutu and Corbin Edward Covault and James Cronin and N. Nierstenhoefer and H. R. Marquez Falcon and B Turner Daniel and Sergio Dasso and R. M. de Almeida and B. R. Dawson and Rogerio Menezes de Almeida and Mariolina De Domenico and Sijbrand J. de Jong and J. de Mello Neto and Ivan De Mitri and Jaime de Souza Oliveira and Vitor Dutra de Souza and Luis del Peral and Olivier Deligny and Hans Dembinski and Niraj Dhital and Claudio Di Giulio and Armando di Matteo and Johana Chirinos Diaz and Manuela D{\'i}az Castro and Francisco Diogo and Carola Dobrigkeit and Wendy Docters and W. Docters and Alexei Dorofeev and Qader Dorosti Hasankiadeh and Maria Teresa Dova and Josef Ebr and R. Engel and M Orellana Erdmann and Mona Erfani and Carlos Our{\'i}vio Escobar and Joao Espadanal and Agustina Etchegoyen and Pedro Facal San Luis and A. P. Ferguson and Ke Qiang Fang and Gill Farrar and C. J. Todero Peixoto and Norberto Fazzini and Andrew P. Ferguson and Mariana Anibal Fernandes and Brandon S. Fick and Juan Manuel Figueira and Alberto Filevich and Anita Filip{\vc}i{\'c} and Benjamin D. Fox and Octavian Fratu and Ulf Fr{\"o}hlich and J. N. Matthews and Toshitsugu Fujii and R. F. Gamarra and Bruce Rafael Mellado Garcia and S. T. Garcia Roca and H. Gemmeke and Gianpaolo Garilli and Alberto Gasc{\'o}n Bravo and Florian Sylvain Gate and Hartmut Gemmeke and Piera Luisa Ghia and Ugo Gregorio Giaccari and M. Giammarchi and Maria Giller and Christian Glaser and Henry Alexander Glass and Mariano G{\'o}mez Berisso and P. F. G{\'o}mez Vitale and Patr{\'i}cia de Jesus Gonçalves and Javier G. Gonzalez and Nerea Gonz{\'a}lez and P. Gouffon and James Gordon and Alessio Gorgi and Peter J. Gorham and Philippe Gouffon and Scott Grebe and Nicholas Griffith and Aurelio F. Grillo and Trent D. Grubb and Yann Guardincerri and E. Katsavounidis and Germano P. Guedes and Mat'ias Rolf Hampel and Peter Holthe Hansen and T. A. Harrison and Thomas Alexander Harrison and Sebastian Hartmann and T. C. Greening and A. Haungs and Jay Mathew Lawhorn and Detlef H. Heck and Philipp Heimann and Alexander E. Herve and Gary C. Hill and Carlos Hojvat and Nicholas Hollon and Ewa Marlen Holt and Petr Homola and Joerg Rudolf Hoerandel and Pavel Horv{\'a}th and Miroslav Hrabovsky and D. Huber and T. Huege and Antonio Insolia and Paula Gina Isar and Kristina Islo and Ingolf Jandt and Stefan Jansen and C. Jarne and Mariela Josebachuili and A. Kaeaepae and Olga Kambeitz and K. H. Kampert and Penelope A. Kasper and Igor Katkov and Bal{\'a}zs K{\'e}gl and Bianca Gerlinde Keilhauer and Azadeh Keivani and E. V. Korolkova and Roger M. Kieckhafer and H. O. Klages and M. Kleifges and Jonny Kleinfeller and Robert Gerd Erich Krause and P. Travnicek and Olaf Kr{\"o}mer and R. M. Kieckhafer and Daniel Kuempel and Norbert Kunka and R. Lauer and Luca Latronico and Robert D. Lauer and Markus Lauscher and Pascal Lautridou and Sandra Le Coz and M.S.A.B. Le{\~a}o and Dominique Lebrun and Philippe Lebrun and Marcelo Augusto Leigui de Oliveira and R. Lauhakangas and T. B{\"a}cker and Klemens Link and Robert Lopez and Karim Louedec and J. Lozano Bahilo and L. R. Lu and Agustin Lucero and Marianne Ludwig and Max Malacari and Simone Maldera and Manuela Mallamaci and Jennifer Maller and A. G. Mariazzi and Paul Matthew Mantsch and Analisa G. Mariazzi and Verci Andr{\'e} Marin and Giovanni Marsella and J. Rodriguez Martino and Lilian Martin and H. Covarrubias Mart{\'i}nez and Oscar Mart{\'i}nez Bravo and Diane Martraire and Jimmy Joel Mas{\'i}as Meza and M. Hrabovsky and Sebastian Mathys and Joshua James Matthews and Allison J. Matthews and Ph. Charpentier and Didier Maurel and D. Baroni Maurizio and Eric William Mayotte and Pawel Oskar Mazur and Collado Medina and Maximilien Melissas and Diego Fernando Andrade Melo and Alexander Menshikov and Steven A. Messina and Rishi Meyhandan and M. I. Micheletti and Mar{\'i}a Isabel Micheletti and Ignacio A. Minaya and L. Miramonti and Bogdan Mitrica and S. Mollerach and Warner A. Miller and Maria Monasor and Delphine Monnier Ragaigne and D. Monnier Ragaigne and Christian Morello and M. G. lam Mostafa and C{\'e}lio A. Moura and Marcio Aparecido Muller and German Prof. Dr. M{\"u}ller and Moritz M{\"u}nchmeyer and M. M. Obertino and Giuseppe Navarra and Solanye Navas and Petr Ne{\vc}esal and A. F. Barbosa and A Nelles and Jens U. Neuser and David Newton and Marcus Niechciol and Lukas Niemietz and Tim Niggemann and H. Schoorlemmer and Vladimir V. Novotny and Giulia Ucchielli and Livingstone Ochilo and Angela V. Olinto and M{\'a}rio J. de Oliveira and Noelia Santana Pacheco and Daniel Pakk Selmi-Dei and Miroslav Palatka and Juan Pallotta and Nicola Palmieri and Philipp Papenbreer and Gonzalo Parente and Alejandro Parra and Terwilliger Paul and Miroslav Pech and Jan Pekala and R. Zavala Pelayo and I. Pepe and Lucy A. Perrone and Emily Petermann and Craig. Peters and Sergio Petrera and Yu. L. Petrov and Jamyang Phuntsok and Ricardo N. Piegaia and Tanguy Pierog and Pablo Emanuel Pieroni and Marcos Pimenta and Valerio Pirronello and M. Concepcion Murieil Platino and Matthias Plum and Alessio Porcelli and Czeslaw Henryk Porowski and Raul Ribeiro Prado and V. Perevozchikov and Michael Prouza and Victor Purrello and Eduardo Jaime Quel and Sven Querchfeld and Samantha Quinn and Julian Rautenberg and Olivier Ravel and Diego Ravignani and Beno{\^i}t Revenu and W. H. Range and Simone Riggi and Markus Risse and Pablo Roberto Ristori and Vincenzo Rizi and G. Rodriguez and W. Rodrigues de Carvalho and Gabriela Rodr{\'i}guez Fern{\'a}ndez and Jorge Rub{\'e}n Rodriguez Rojo and Mar{\'i}a Dolores Rodr{\'i}guez-Fr{\'i}as and Garc{\'i}a Juan Manuel Ros and Javier Rosado and T. Rossler and Matthias Roth and Emmanuelle Roulet and A. Clay R.W. Rovero and Steven J. Saffi and Alexandra Saftoiu and Francesco Salamida and Humberto Magad{\'a}n Salazar and Ahmed Saleh and Francisco Salesa Greus and Gaetano Salina and Federico S{\'a}nchez and F. S{\'a}nchez and Christophe Espı́rito Santo and Edson Mauro Santos and Fr'ed'eric Sarazin and Biswaijt Sarkar and R. Sarmento and Nadja Scharf and Viviana Scherini and H. Schieler and Peter N. Schiffer and O Scholten and Harm Schoorlemmer and Fred Georg Schroeder and Frederic Schroeder and Johannes Joagim Christoffel Schulz and Joseph W. Schumacher and Sergio Sciutto and Alberto Segreto and Mariangela Settimo and Amir Shahidi Shadkam and Ronald Cintra Shellard and Iv{\'a}n Sidelnik and H. H. Silva L{\'o}pez and Octavian Sima and A. Śmiałkowski and Benedikt Vormwald and P. K. Sommers and J. N. Sorokin and Y. N. Srivastava and Yogendra. N. Srivastava and Samo Stanic and Jaroslaw Stasielak and M. Roy Stephan and J. Stasielak and Francisco Su{\'a}rez and Tiina Suomij{\"a}rvi and Alberto Daniel Supanitsky and Michael S. Sutherland and John D. Swain and Zbigniew Szadkowski and Marek Szuba and Oscar Alejandro Taborda and A. Olmos Tapia and Mathieu Tartare and Andreas Tepe and Vanessa Menezes Theodoro and Charles Timmermans and Carlos Jos{\'e} Todero Peixoto and G. Toma and Aurelio Siro Tonachini and Guillermo Torralba Elipe and Diego Torres Machado and G. Torralba Elipe and D. B. Tridapalli and Ralph Ulrich and Michael Unger and J. F. Vald{\'e}s Galicia and Jos{\'e} Fco. Vald{\'e}s Galicia and G. A. van Aar and van den Maarten Berg and Sjoert van Velzen and Arnoud van Vliet and Enrique Rodr{\'i}guez Varela and Bernardo Vargas C{\'a}rdenas and B. Vargas C{\'a}rdenas and J{\'o}se R. V{\'a}zquez and Ricardo Astorga V{\'a}zquez and Darko Veberic and G. W. Van Apeldoorn and Jakub Vicha and Monteverde Videla and Luis Villase{\~n}or and Brian Vlcek and Serguei Vorobiov and Hannu Wahlberg and O Scar Wainberg and Dieter Andreas Walz and Alan Andrew Watson and Matthias Weber and Klaus Frank Weidenhaupt and K. Weidenhaupt and Frank Werner and Allan Widom and Lawrence Wiencke and Barbara Wilczynska and Henryk Wilczynski and Moritz Will and H. Wilczynski and Tobias Winchen and David Wittkowski and Brian Wundheiler and Sarka Wykes and Tokujiro Yamamoto and B. Wundheiler and Patrick William Younk and Guofeng Yuan and B. Zamorano Garcia and B. Asenjo Zamorano and Danilo Zavrtanik and Marko Zavrtanik and Ingyin Khin Zaw and A. Vega Zepeda and Jing-nan Zhou and Yuxue Zhu and Marcelo Zimbres Silva and Michael Ziolkowski and Felice Zuccarello},
We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultra-high energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between $62^\circ$ and $80^\circ$. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the Surface Detector array and the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it… CONTINUE READING

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