Municipal Housekeeping

  title={Municipal Housekeeping},
  author={Celeste K. Carruthers and Marianne H. Wanamaker},
  journal={The Journal of Human Resources},
  pages={837 - 872}
Gains in 20th century real wages and reductions in the black-white wage gap have been linked to the midcentury ascent of school quality. With a new data set uniquely appropriate to identifying the impact of female voter enfranchisement on education spending, we attribute up to one-third of the 1920–40 rise in public school expenditures to the Nineteenth Amendment. Yet the continued disenfranchisement of black Southerners meant white school gains far outpaced those for blacks. As a result, women… 

Separate and Unequal in the Labor Market: Human Capital and the Jim Crow Wage Gap

Competing explanations for the long-standing gap between black and white earnings attribute different weight to wage discrimination and human capital differences. Using new data on local school

Personal is Political : Prospects for Women ’ s Substantive Representation in Pakistan ∗

I develop and test a theory of how gender inequality within the household is reproduced in the political sphere, and undermines prospects for women’s substantive representation. Drawing on an

The causal effects of voting franchise extensions on fiscal outcomes1

The paper studies the effects of removing socioeconomic restrictions on female voting rights on fiscal outcomes. We use a national voting reform in Norwegian local elections in the beginning of the

Votes for and by Women : How Did Women Vote after the Nineteenth Amendment ?

While scholars always wondered to what extent womens votes contributed to the Republican landslide in the 1920 election, the existing evidence is mixed. This paper exploits variation in the

Investing in long-run partisan loyalty : Empirical evidence from post-dictatorial Greece

This paper examines the role of political incentives in the geographical allocation of public investment in 52 NUTS3-level regions in Greece during the period 1975-1989. Using a novel dataset of

Canvassing the Gatekeepers: A Field Experiment to Increase Women Voters’ Turnout in Pakistan

How can we close persistent gender gaps in political participation? We develop a theory highlighting the role of male household members as “gatekeepers” of women’s participation in patriarchal

“Believing the Ladies Had Great Influence”: Early National American Women’s Patronage in Transatlantic Context

This essay argues that patronage was integral to the development of the federal government, forming the required connections among governmental officials and between the government and its citizens.

First women at the polls : examination of women's early voting behaviour

My dissertation research provides first systematic analysis of women’s early voting behavior. The key contribution of this thesis is that women’s suffrage made a significant dent into electoral



Did Women's Suffrage Change the Size and Scope of Government?

This paper examines the growth of government during this century as a result of giving women the right to vote. Using cross‐sectional time‐series data for 1870–1940, we examine state government


New evidence is presented on how suffrage rights for American women helped children to benefit from the scientific breakthroughs of the bacteriological revolution as cause-specific reductions occurred exclusively among infectious childhood killers sensitive to hygienic conditions.

Valuing the Vote: the Redistribution of Voting Rights and State Funds Following the Voting Rights Act of 1965

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 (VRA) has been called one of the most effective pieces of civil rights legislation in U.S. history, having generated dramatic increases in black voter registration

Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment

Between 1973 and 1978, the Indonesian Government constructed over 61,000 primary schools throughout the country. This is one of the largest school construction programs on record. I evaluate the


During the nineteenth century most Western societies extended voting rights, a decision that led to unprecedented redistributive programs. We argue that these political reforms can be viewed as

Segregated Schools and the Mobility Hypothesis: A Model of Local Government Discrimination

Around the turn of the century, Southern blacks lost the right to vote and discrimination against them by local government officials intensified. This paper argues that, in the case of the de jure

America's Graduation from High School: The Evolution and Spread of Secondary Schooling in the Twentieth Century

  • C. Goldin
  • Education
    The Journal of Economic History
  • 1998
Secondary-school enrollment and graduation rates increased spectacularly in much of the United States from 1910 to 1940; the advance was particularly rapid from 1920 to 1935 in the nonsouthern

The Effect of the Expansion of the Voting Franchise on the Size of Government

This paper examines the claim that expansion of the voting franchise has been an important factor in the growth of government. State government spending and state and local spending are explained

Investments, Time Preferences, and Public Transfers Paid to Women

A social experiment in which women in treatment households were given a large public cash transfer (PROGRESA) results in a shift in the balance of power within households and that women allocated more resources toward investments in the future.