Multiplicative groups of integers with semi-primitive roots modulo n

Abstract

Consider a multiplicative group of integers modulo n, denoted by n Z . Any element n a Z  is said to be a semi-primitive root if the order of a modulo n is ( ) / 2 n  , where ( ) n  is the Euler phi-function. In this paper, we discuss some interesting properties of the multiplicative groups of integers possessing semi-primitive roots and give its… (More)

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