Multiple symbiotes in larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae): associations of trichomycete fungi with ichthyosporeans, mermithid nematodes, and microsporidia.

  title={Multiple symbiotes in larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae): associations of trichomycete fungi with ichthyosporeans, mermithid nematodes, and microsporidia.},
  author={Sam‐kyu Kim and Peter H. Adler},
  journal={Journal of invertebrate pathology},
  volume={88 3},
Studies of the interactions between two or more species of symbiotic microorganisms in a single host animal have lagged behind those involving interactions between hymenopteran or dipteran parasitoids. We screened the larvae of four species of black flies (Cnephia ornithophilia, Simulium furculatum, Simulium innoxium, and Simulium vandalicum) to determine if the colonization and prevalence of trichomycete fungi were influenced by ichthyosporeans, mermithid nematodes, microsporidia, or other… 
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Smittium, the most speciose genus of the "gut fungi" (Zygomycota: Trichomycetes), is found attached to the hindgut cuticle of larval aquatic Diptera. Smittium spp. colonize several host families
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