Multiple steps and critical behaviors of the binding of calcium to alginate.

@article{Fang2007MultipleSA,
  title={Multiple steps and critical behaviors of the binding of calcium to alginate.},
  author={Yapeng Fang and Saphwan Al-Assaf and Glyn O. Phillips and Katsuyoshi Nishinari and Takahiro Funami and Peter A. Williams and Liangbin Li},
  journal={The journal of physical chemistry. B},
  year={2007},
  volume={111 10},
  pages={
          2456-62
        }
}
Previous research on the binding and gelation of calcium/alginate in aqueous solution were mostly conducted in the (semi-)concentrated regime, and it did not provide details of the binding process and the formation of egg-box junctions. In the present investigation, the binding of calcium to alginate, of low and high molecular weight and different guluronate/mannuronate ratios, was investigated in dilute solutions using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), Ca2+-selective potentiometry, and… 

On the initial binding of alginate by calcium ions. The tilted egg-box hypothesis.

The initial binding of calcium ions by alginate chains was investigated in dilute solution and an ion multicomplex binding modality was proposed to be formed in a conformation which, albeit ordered, is different from the well-known "egg box" one.

On the Molecular Mechanism of the Calcium-Induced Gelation of Pectate. Different Steps in the Binding of Calcium Ions by Pectate.

Intrinsic viscosity and number-average molar mass data as a function of Rj showed that calcium bonding brings about chain association right from the beginning of addition to pectate, corroborated previously reported evidence on the enthalpic nature of the elasticity of Ca2+-pectate gels.
...