Multiple regulators of ultrasonic vocalization in the infant rat.

  title={Multiple regulators of ultrasonic vocalization in the infant rat.},
  author={Myron A. Hofer},
  volume={21 2},
This paper reviews our growing understanding of the external environmental and the internal neuroregulatory mechanisms for the infant rat's vocal response to abrupt isolation from nest, littermates and mother. Interactions of the rat pup with specific components of its animate and inanimate environment have been identified and found to exert a tonic regulatory action on the neural systems mediating ultrasonic vocalization (USV). In isolation, withdrawal of these regulators produces an acute… CONTINUE READING

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