Multiple oncogenic mutations and clonal relationship in spatially distinct benign human epidermal tumors.

@article{Hafner2010MultipleOM,
  title={Multiple oncogenic mutations and clonal relationship in spatially distinct benign human epidermal tumors.},
  author={Christian Hafner and Agust{\'i} Toll and Alejandro Fern{\'a}ndez-Casado and Julie Earl and Miriam Marqu{\'e}s and Francesco Acquadro and Marinela M{\'e}ndez-Pertuz and Miguel Urioste and N{\'u}ria Malats and Julie E. Burns and Margaret A Knowles and Juan C. Cigudosa and Arndt Hartmann and Thomas Vogt and M{\'i}chael Landthaler and Ramon Maria Pujol and Francisco X Real},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={2010},
  volume={107 48},
  pages={20780-5}
}
Malignant tumors result from the accumulation of genetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Much less is known about the genetic changes in benign tumors. Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are very frequent benign human epidermal tumors without malignant potential. We performed a comprehensive mutational screen of genes in the FGFR3-RAS-MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways from 175 SK, including multiple lesions from each patient. SK commonly harbored multiple bona… CONTINUE READING

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