Multiple nuptial flights, sperm transfer and the evolution of extreme polyandry in honeybee queens


The honeybee, Apis mellifera, has an extremely polyandrous mating system, which often involves multiple nuptial flights by its queens. To understand the evolution of extreme polyandry, we investigated the cost of multiple nuptial flights in relation to potential benefits. We analysed, with eight DNAmicrosatellite loci, the paternity of worker offspring of… (More)


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