Multiple genes recruited from hormone pathways partition maize diterpenoid defences

  title={Multiple genes recruited from hormone pathways partition maize diterpenoid defences},
  author={Yezhang Ding and Katherine M. Murphy and Elly Poretsky and Sibongile Mafu and Bing Yang and Si Nian Char and Shawn A Christensen and Evan Saldivar and Mengxi Wu and Qiang Wang and Lexiang Ji and Robert J. Schmitz and Karl A. Kremling and Edward S. Buckler and Zhouxin Shen and Steven P. Briggs and J{\"o}rg Bohlmann and Andrew W. Sher and Gabriel Castro-Falcon and Chambers C Hughes and Alisa Huffaker and Philipp Zerbe and Eric A. Schmelz},
  journal={Nature Plants},
Duplication and divergence of primary pathway genes underlie the evolution of plant specialized metabolism; however, mechanisms partitioning parallel hormone and defence pathways are often speculative. For example, the primary pathway intermediate ent-kaurene is essential for gibberellin biosynthesis and is also a proposed precursor for maize antibiotics. By integrating transcriptional coregulation patterns, genome-wide association studies, combinatorial enzyme assays, proteomics and targeted… 

Genetic elucidation of interconnected antibiotic pathways mediating maize innate immunity.

The elucidated genetic basis of biochemical phenotypes that underlie disease resistance demonstrates a predominant maize defence pathway and informs innovative strategies for transferring chemical immunity between crops.

Genetic elucidation of complex biochemical traits mediating maize innate immunity

The elucidated genetic basis of biochemical phenotypes underlying disease resistance demonstrates a predominant maize defense pathway and informs innovative strategies for transferring chemical immunity between crops.

Furanoditerpenoid biosynthesis in the bioenergy crop switchgrass is catalyzed by an alternate metabolic pathway

The genomics-enabled discovery of five cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP71Z25-29) that form previously unknown furanoditerpenoids in the monocot bioenergy crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is reported.

Interdependent evolution of biosynthetic gene clusters for momilactone production in rice.

The presence of CYP76M8 in the other "phytocassane" BGC indicates interdependent evolution of these two BGCs, highlighting the distinct nature of BGC assembly in plants.

Analysis of the chromosomal clustering of Fusarium-responsive wheat genes uncovers new players in the defence against head blight disease

This study provides a new tool to identify genomic regions enriched in genes responsive to specific traits of interest and applied herein it highlighted gene families, genetic loci and biological pathways of importance in the response of wheat to disease.

Differential activities of maize Plant Elicitor Peptides as mediators of immune signaling and herbivore resistance.

A striking correlation between individual ZmPep-elicited changes in levels of jasmonic acid and ethylene and the magnitude of induced defense responses was observed, indicating that collectively ZmElicitor Peptides may regulate immune output through rheostat-like tuning of phytohormone levels.

Evolution of Labdane-Related Diterpene Synthases in Cereals.

The evolutionary history of the various homologs in rice inferred by comparative genomics studies using wild rice species such as Oryza rufipogon andOryza brachyantha are shown.

A dolabralexin-deficient mutant provides insight into specialized diterpenoid metabolism in maize (Zea mays)

Generation and analysis of CRISPR-Cas9-derived loss-of- function Kaurene Synthase-Like 4 mutants demonstrated dolabralexin production deficiency, thus supporting ZmKSL4 as the diterpene synthase responsible for the conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate precursors into dolABradiene and downstream pathway products.

Comparative transcriptome meta-analysis reveals a set of genes involved in the responses to multiple pathogens in maize

A meta-analysis of gene expression profiles from seven publicly available RNA-seq datasets of different fungal pathogen infections in maize revealed a set of genes associated with terpenoid phytoalexin and lignin biosynthesis, as well as potential pattern recognition receptors and nutrient transporter genes, which were consistently up-regulated after inoculation with different pathogens.



Relaxation of tyrosine pathway regulation underlies the evolution of betalain pigmentation in Caryophyllales.

It is suggested that relaxation of Tyr pathway regulation increased Tyr production and contributed to the evolution of betalain pigmentation, highlighting the significance of upstream primary metabolic regulation for the diversification of specialized plant metabolism.

Biosynthesis, elicitation and roles of monocot terpenoid phytoalexins.

Recent advances in the discovery, biosynthesis, elicitation and functional characterization of monocot terpenoid phytoalexins are discussed, including conclusive evidence now exists for multiple plant receptors of fungal-derived chitin elicitors, phosphorylation of membrane-associated signaling complexes, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, involvement of phytohormone signals, and the existence of transcription factors.

Selinene Volatiles Are Essential Precursors for Maize Defense Promoting Fungal Pathogen Resistance1[OPEN]

In vivo disease resistance assays, using ZmTps21 and Zmtps21 near-isogenic lines, further support the endogenous antifungal role of selinene-derived metabolites and unexpectedly high levels of the sesquiterpene volatile β-selinene and the corresponding nonvolatile antibiotic derivative β-costic acid.

A Tandem Array of ent-Kaurene Synthases in Maize with Roles in Gibberellin and More Specialized Metabolism1[OPEN]

It is reported that all three genes encode enzymes that are targeted to the plastid in planta, where diterpenoid biosynthesis is initiated, and which all readily catalyze the production of ent-kaurene.

Gene Discovery of Modular Diterpene Metabolism in Nonmodel Systems1[W][OA]

The approach combines metabolite-guided transcriptome resources, custom diterpene synthase (diTPS) and cytochrome P450 reference gene databases, phylogenies, and, as shown for select diTPSs, single and coupled enzyme assays using microbial and plant expression systems.

Genomic Signatures of Specialized Metabolism in Plants

It is found that, relative to their primary metabolic counterparts, genes coding for specialized metabolic functions have proliferated to a much greater degree and by different mechanisms and display lineage-specific patterns of physical clustering within the genome and coexpression, which illustrate the differential evolution of specialized metabolism in plants.

Inferring Roles in Defense from Metabolic Allocation of Rice Diterpenoids[OPEN]

It is shown that knocking out or knocking down Os-CPS4 actually decreases susceptibility to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae, and plays a role in fungal non-host disease resistance.

Gibberellin biosynthesis and its regulation.

The present review discusses the current state of knowledge on GA metabolism with particular emphasis on regulation, including the complex mechanisms for the maintenance of GA homoeostasis.

Conservation of function between mammalian and plant steroid 5α-reductases

It is shown that the DET2 protein, when expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, catalyzes the 5 α-reduction of several animal steroid substrates and has similar kinetic properties to the mammalian steroid 5α-reductase enzymes.