High-sensitivity C-reactive protein in stroke patients – The importance in consideration of influence of multiple factors in the predictability for disease severity and death
OBJECTIVES We investigated the relationships of biomarkers of various pathophysiologic pathways including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lipocalin-2 (LCN2), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP9) with mortality in stroke patients. DESIGN AND METHODS hs-CRP, LCN2 and MPO concentrations in 92 patients were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. MMP9 mRNA concentrations were determined using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Twelve patients (13.0%) died at 6 months and 34 patients (37.0%) died at 5 years. The independent predictors for 6-month mortality were hs-CRP (adjusted OR=16.0) and LCN2 (adjusted OR=16.9), while for 5-year mortality was hs-CRP (adjusted OR=5.56). For patients with hs-CRP >3.4 mg/L, an increase in LCN2 was associated with 2.5-fold higher 6-month mortality, while an increase in normalized MMP9 mRNA was associated with 5.8-fold higher 6-month and 1.5-fold higher 5-year mortality. CONCLUSION hs-CRP was the most significant independent predictor of both short- and long-term mortality after stroke, with LCN2 and MMP9 mRNA each adding further to the risk stratification.