Multiple Sclerosis: A Coordinated Immunological Attack against Myelin in the Central Nervous System

@article{Steinman1996MultipleSA,
  title={Multiple Sclerosis: A Coordinated Immunological Attack against Myelin in the Central Nervous System},
  author={L Steinman},
  journal={Cell},
  year={1996},
  volume={85},
  pages={299-302}
}
  • L. Steinman
  • Published 3 May 1996
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Cell

Figures from this paper

Remembering MOG: Autoantibody mediated demyelination in multiple sclerosis?
A comparative study of acute lesions in multiple sclerosis patients and in marmosets suggests that anti–MOG antibodies are responsible for the demyelination characteristic of this autoimmune disease
Multiple Sclerosis: Animal Models and Treatment Options
TLDR
Different treatment protocols, based on neurotropic viral infections and/or immunization with CNS proteins, have been implemented, and there are encouraging outcomes, but cure is still far from reach.
Viral damage and the breakdown of self-tolerance
Theiler's virus induces breakdown of tolerance to myelin and initiates a multiple sclerosis-like autoimmune disease in mice (pages 1133–1136).
Multiple approaches to multiple sclerosis
TLDR
It is suggested that if tolerance to components of the nervous system is not maintained in the thymus and autoimmunity ensues, the extent of brain damage can be checked by blockade of glutamate receptors on neurons and oligodendrocytes.
Factors Which Predispose to the Onset of Autoimmune Disease
This project was carried out in Dr. Caroline Whitacre's Lab in the Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics (College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University).
Uncovering Cryptic Glycan Markers in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE)
Preclinical Research
The viral triggering of autoimmune disease
Evidence emerges that Coxsackie virus-induced autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in mice may be caused by bystander activation of T cells or other mechanisms distinct from molecular
Autoimmune disease: why and where it occurs
Autoimmune disease is controlled by genetic and environmental factors. Both of these affect susceptibility to autoimmunity at three levels: the overall reactivity of the immune system, the specific
The Immunobiology of Multiple Sclerosis: An Autoimmune Disease of the Central Nervous System
TLDR
This research presents a novel probabilistic procedure called “spot localization-based cell reprograming” that allows for rapid and accurate characterization of the nervous system’s response to foreign substance abuse.
Translating pathology in multiple sclerosis: the combination of postmortem imaging, histopathology and clinical findings
TLDR
Research combining postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology have provided important insights into the abnormalities reflected by MRI.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 64 REFERENCES
Infection and multiple sclerosis: a possible role for superantigens?
Major T-cell responses in multiple sclerosis.
Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against α4βl integrin
TLDR
In vitro adhesion assay on tissue sections found that lymphocytes and monocytes bound selectively to inflamed EAE brain vessels, and therapies designed to interfere with α4βl integrin may be useful in treating inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis.
Treatment of experimental encephalomyelitis with a peptide analogue of myelin basic protein
TLDR
It is shown that when clone L10C1 is tolerized in vivo with an analogue of p87–99, established paralysis is reversed, inflammatory infiltrates regress, and the heterogeneous T-cell infiltrate disappears from the brain, with only the T-cells that incited disease remaining in the original lesions.
Apoptosis in brain-specific autoimmune disease
Reversal of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by a soluble peptide variant of a myelin basic protein epitope: T cell receptor antagonism and reduction of interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha production
TLDR
To elucidate the mechanism of inhibition of EAE, draining lymph node cells from rats immunized with the native peptide alone or together with each of the three TCR antagonists were challenged in vitro with p87-99, indicating that the extent of MHC or TCR competition does not predict success in treating EAE.
Reversal of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with a hydroxamate inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases.
TLDR
Results indicate that matrix metalloprotease inhibition can reverse ongoing EAE, and this effect appears to be mediated mainly through restoration of the damaged blood-brain barrier in the inflammatory phase of the disease.
Anti—tumor necrosis factor therapy abrogates autoimmune demyelination
TLDR
It is shown that anti‐TNF antibody can inhibit effectively the development of EAE by interfering with the effector, rather than the induction, phase of the disease.
Fine specificity of the antibody response to myelin basic protein in the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis: the minimal B-cell epitope and a model of its features.
TLDR
A molecular model of the epitope center for the antibody response to human myelin basic protein (MBP) is described and overlaps with the reported DR2a-restricted epitope for T cells reactive to MBP.
...
...