Multiple Realizability Revisited: Linking Cognitive and Neural States

  title={Multiple Realizability Revisited: Linking Cognitive and Neural States},
  author={William Bechtel and Jennifer Mundale},
  journal={Philosophy of Science},
  pages={175 - 207}
The contention that psychological states are multiply realizable in different substrates has been used to support the contention that neuroscience is not likely to be very useful in guiding an understanding how cognition works. But in the context of scientific research, how seriously should we really take this threat of multiple realizability? By examining how brain areas are identified in neuroscience (where the approach is comparative and employs functional criteria), we show that the… 

HIT on the Psychometric Approach

A version of the identity theory is characterized—heuristic identity theory (HIT), which figures centrally in developing such explanations—and its role in what is taken to be a prototypical example of research in cognitive neuroscience is illustrated.

Empirical Evidence for Intraspecific Multiple Realization?

This work compares the data of two stroke patients, two patients with posterior cortical atrophy, six cases of strabismic amblyopia, and one case with restored sight to provide evidence in support of MRT and shows that integration seems to describe quite accurately the visual performance in all these cases.

Brodmann's Brain Mapping and Multiple Realization

Some forty years ago, Hilary Putnam offered the speculative empirical hypothesis that psychological states are multiply realized in brain states. With the subsequent explosive growth in

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Multiple realizability says that the same kind of mental states may be manifested by systems with very different physical constitutions. Putnam (1967) supposed it to be “overwhelmingly probable” that

What’s on Your Mind? A Brain Scan Won’t Tell

Reverse Inference (RI) is an imaging-based type of inference from brain states to mental states, which has become highly widespread in neuroscience, most especially in neuroeconomics. Recent critical

Bridge Laws and the Psycho-Neural Interface y

Recent advancements in the brain sciences have enabled researchers to determine, with increasing accuracy, patterns and locations of neural activation associated with various psychological functions.

Bridge Laws and the Psycho-Neural Interface ∗ †

Recent advancements in the brain sciences have enabled researchers to determine, with increasing accuracy, patterns and locations of neural activation associated with various psychological functions.

The Functional Unity of Special Science Kinds

  • D. Weiskopf
  • Biology
    The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
  • 2011
It is shown that diverse physical mechanisms can converge on common functional properties at multiple levels, compatible with the existence of general constraints on the evolution of cognitive systems, and does not involve any ad hoc typing of coarse-grained higher level properties.

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:  There has recently been controversy over the existence of ‘multiple realization’ in addition to some confusion between different conceptions of its nature. To resolve these problems, we focus on

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I will begin by proposing a taxonomy of taxonomic positions regarding the mind–brain: localism, globalism, revisionism, and contextualism, and will go on to focus on the last position. Although some



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It is here argued that functionalist constraints on psychology do not preclude the applicability of classic forms of reduction and, therefore, do not support claims to a principled, or de jure,

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This proposal that the cortical and subcortical pathways are continuous, so that distinct channels of information that arise in the retina remain segregated up to the highest levels of visual cortex has far-reaching implications for the understanding of the functional organization of the visual system.

Neural representation and neural computation

The consequences that brain-style processing may have on theories of cognition are explored, and connectionist models are used as examples to illustrate neural representation and computation in the pronouncing of English text, and in the extracting of shape parameters from shaded images.

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Global Processing-Time Coefficients Characterize Individual and Group Differences in Cognitive Speed

Forty participants performed seven different information processing tasks (choice reaction time, letter classification, visual search, abstract matching, line-length discrimination, mental rotation,