Multiple Identified Neurons and Peripheral Nerves Innervating the Prothoracic Defense Glands in Stick Insects Reveal Evolutionary Conserved and Novel Elements of a Chemical Defense System

  title={Multiple Identified Neurons and Peripheral Nerves Innervating the Prothoracic Defense Glands in Stick Insects Reveal Evolutionary Conserved and Novel Elements of a Chemical Defense System},
  author={Johannes Strau{\ss} and Christoph-R{\"u}diger von Bredow and Yvette M von Bredow and Konrad Stolz and Tina E. Trenczek and Reinhard Lakes-Harlan},
  journal={Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution},
The defense glands in the dorsal prothorax are an important autapomorphic trait of stick insects (Phasmatodea). Here, we study the functional anatomy and neuronal innervation of the defense glands in Anisomorpha paromalus (Westwood, 1859) (Pseudophasmatinae), a species which sprays its defense secretions when disturbed or attacked. We use a neuroanatomical approach to identify the nerves innervating the gland muscles and the motoneurons with axons in the different nerves. The defense gland is… 
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