Multiple Actions of Pituitary Adenylyl Cyclase Activating Peptide in Nervous System Development and Regeneration

@article{Waschek2002MultipleAO,
  title={Multiple Actions of Pituitary Adenylyl Cyclase Activating Peptide in Nervous System Development and Regeneration},
  author={James A. Waschek},
  journal={Developmental Neuroscience},
  year={2002},
  volume={24},
  pages={14 - 23}
}
  • J. Waschek
  • Published 1 July 2002
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Developmental Neuroscience
Pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is widely expressed in the embryonic brain at the onset of neurogenesis, and is strongly upregulated in several models of nerve injury. Moreover, high-affinity PACAP receptors are expressed in proliferative zones in the embryonic and postnatal nervous system suggesting that PACAP regulates the development of both neuronal and glial precursors. Tissue culture studies indicate that PACAP exerts a variety of growth factor-like actions that… 
Pituitary adenylyl cyclase‐activating peptide counteracts hedgehog‐dependent motor neuron production in mouse embryonic stem cell cultures
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It is demonstrated that PACAP completely blocked Shh‐dependent motor neuron generation from embryonic stem cell cultures and reduced mRNA levels of the Shh target gene Gli‐1 and several ventral spinal cord patterning genes.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase‐activating polypeptide regulates forebrain neural stem cells and neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo
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It is determined that the intracerebroventricular infusion of PACAP into the adult forebrain was sufficient to increase neurogenesis significantly in both the hippocampus and the subventricular zone and, therefore, may be ideal for promoting the endogenous regeneration of damaged brain tissue.
Pro- and Anti-Mitogenic Actions of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide in Developing Cerebral Cortex: Potential Mediation by Developmental Switch of PAC1 Receptor mRNA Isoforms
TLDR
It is found that mice deficient in PACAP exhibited a decrease in the BrdU labeling index (LI) in E9.5 cortex, suggesting that PACAP normally promotes proliferation at this stage, and establishes a novel culture model in which the viability of very early cortical precursors could be maintained.
The Neuropeptide Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase‐Activating Polypeptide Exerts Anti‐Apoptotic and Differentiating Effects during Neurogenesis: Focus on Cerebellar Granule Neurones and Embryonic Stem Cells
TLDR
The anti‐apoptotic and pro‐differentiating effects of PACAP characterised in cerebellar neuroblasts as well as ES and EB cells indicate that PACAP acts not only as a neurohormone and a neurotransmitter, but also as a growth factor.
PACAP promotes sensory neuron differentiation: blockade by neurotrophic factors
Pleiotropic Functions of PACAP in the CNS
TLDR
The results suggest that PACAP itself and PACAP‐stimulated secretion of IL‐6 synergistically inhibit apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, strongly suggesting thatPACAP plays very important roles in neuroprotection in adult brain as well as astrocyte differentiation during development.
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide and Sonic Hedgehog Interact to Control Cerebellar Granule Precursor Cell Proliferation
TLDR
Observations suggest that G-protein-coupled receptors, such as PAC1, serve as sensors of environmental cues, coordinating diverse neurogenetic signals in the developing cerebellum.
Neuroprotective roles of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in neurodegenerative diseases
TLDR
The current findings on the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of PACAP in different brain injury models, such as cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are summarized to provide information for the future development of therapeutic strategies in treatment of these neurodegenerative diseases.
Cellular localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) following traumatic brain injury in humans
TLDR
It is hypothesized that the increase of glial PACAP immunoreactivity may be interpreted as part of a complex endogenous neuroprotective response in the pericontusional regions, but the precise role of PACAP following TBI is yet to be determined.
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