Multiphoton fabrication of chemically responsive protein hydrogels for microactuation.

  title={Multiphoton fabrication of chemically responsive protein hydrogels for microactuation.},
  author={Bryan Kaehr and Jason B. Shear},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  volume={105 26},
We report a method for creating stimuli-responsive biomaterials in which scanning nonlinear excitation is used to photocrosslink proteins at submicrometer 3D coordinates. Proteins with differing hydration properties can be combined to achieve tunable volume changes that are rapid and reversible in response to changes in chemical environment. Protein matrices having arbitrary 3D topographies and definable density gradients over micrometer dimensions provide the ability to effect rapid (<1 sec… CONTINUE READING
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