Multimode Surface Functional Group Determination: Combining Steady-State and Time-Resolved Fluorescence with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Absorption Measurements for Absolute Quantification.

The quantitative determination of surface functional groups is approached in a straightforward laboratory-based method with high reliability. The application of a multimode BODIPY-type fluorescence, photometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) label allows estimation of the labeling ratio, i.e., the ratio of functional groups carrying a label… (More)