Thirty-seven patients with Ewing sarcoma were treated in the First National Chilean Trial for Ewing's Sarcoma (1986-1991), which comprised the St. Jude Ewing's 78 Study. All patients received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and Dactinomycin for a total treatment period of about 10 months, and all prescribed therapy was administered. Local therapy consisted of irradiation (RT) to the primary tumor, complete surgical resection, or a combination of both surgery and RT. Twenty-nine of these patients had localized tumors, 24% had pelvic primary tumors, 21 were males, and 20 were greater than 10 years of age at diagnosis. Twenty-one patients had tumors that were greater than 8 cm in largest diameter. Fourteen of the 29 patients with localized disease remain disease free at 23 to 91 months from diagnosis. Fourteen patients have died of-tumor-related complications and 1 of a secondary malignancy. Relapse was local only in 4, metastatic in 9, and local plus metastatic in 1. Only 1 of the 8 patients with metastatic disease at presentation remains disease free. Toxicity consisted primarily of myelosuppression and mucositis. We conclude that this form of relative intense multimodal therapy for children/adolescents with localized Ewing sarcoma is curative in about half of affected children as in the original St. Jude study, and that it can be safely given in a developing country, provided that careful attention to supportive care and treatment planning is given. Although these results represent improvement in outcome for our patients, more effective therapy is needed for children with Ewing sarcoma, especially those with metastatic disease at presentation.