Multimodal fast optical interrogation of neural circuitry

@article{Zhang2007MultimodalFO,
  title={Multimodal fast optical interrogation of neural circuitry},
  author={Feng Zhang and Liping Wang and Martin Brauner and Jana F Liewald and Kenneth Kay and Natalie Watzke and Phillip G. Wood and Ernst Bamberg and Georg Nagel and Alexander Gottschalk and Karl Deisseroth},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2007},
  volume={446},
  pages={633-639}
}
Our understanding of the cellular implementation of systems-level neural processes like action, thought and emotion has been limited by the availability of tools to interrogate specific classes of neural cells within intact, living brain tissue. Here we identify and develop an archaeal light-driven chloride pump (NpHR) from Natronomonas pharaonis for temporally precise optical inhibition of neural activity. NpHR allows either knockout of single action potentials, or sustained blockade of… 

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