Multilevel and kin selection in a connected world

  title={Multilevel and kin selection in a connected world},
  author={Michael J. Wade and David Sloan Wilson and Charles J. Goodnight and Douglas R. Taylor and Yaneer Bar-Yam and Marcus A. M. de Aguiar and Blake C. Stacey and Justin Werfel and Guy A. Hoelzer and Edmund D. Brodie and Peter J. Fields and Felix Breden and Timothy A. Linksvayer and Jeffrey A. Fletcher and Peter J. Richerson and James D. Bever and J. David van Dyken and Peter C Zee},
Arising from: G. Wild, A. Gardner & S. A. West 459, 983–986 (2009)10.1038/nature08071; Wild, Gardner & West replyWild et al. argue that the evolution of reduced virulence can be understood from the perspective of inclusive fitness, obviating the need to evoke group selection as a contributing causal factor. Although they acknowledge the mathematical equivalence of the inclusive fitness and multilevel selection approaches, they conclude that reduced virulence can be viewed entirely as an… 
Controversy in Evolutionary Theory: A multilevel view of the issues
This paper is concerned with the issue in the case of vertebrates such as birds, fishes, mammals, and specifically humans, and proposes that the resolution is that adaptive selection outcomes occurring at the organism level chain down to determine outcomes at the genome level.
The Evolution of Ecosystem Phenotypes
The property-based account of ecosystemic ENS can help understand evolution at other biological levels, such as early life evolution and holobionts, and is illustrated with a hypothetical example of local ecosystems that vary in terms of stability, productivity, diversity, and complementarity between species.
Prudent males, group adaptation, and the tragedy of the commons
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Supplementary Information for “ The evolution of eusociality ”
Kin selection theory based on the concept of inclusive fitness is often presented as a general approach that can deal with many aspects of evolutionary dynamics. Here we show that this is not the
Rotating the Necker cube: A bioeconomic approach to cooperation and the causal role of synergy in evolution
It will be argued that synergies of various kinds have been important drivers for cooperation in living systems at all levels, and that genetic relatedness is neither necessary nor sufficient for the emergence of cooperative phenomena.
Evolutionary principles promoting cooperation
It is shown that the interplay of demographic fluctuations and population dynamics can drastically influence the evolutionary outcome and lead to a transient increase of cooperation, and quantify the edge of neutral evolution where fitness-differences become important and demographic fluctuations are only of minor relevance.
Duality Of Stochasticity And Natural Selection Shape The Ecology-driven Pattern Of Social Interactions: The Fall Of Hamilton's Rule
From microbes to mammals, cooperation is selected-for in harsh, uncertain and unpredictable environments, and the evolution of cooperation is a bet-hedging (risk spreading) strategy of risk-averse individuals in stochastic environments.
Two-level Fisher-Wright framework with selection and migration: An approach to studying evolution in group structured populations
The early stages of the evolution, during which the number of altruists is small compared to the size of the population, are analyzed, and it is shown that during this stage the evolution is well described by a multitype branching process.
The cultural evolution of emergent group-level traits
The emergence and evolution of group-level traits and the implications for the theory of cultural evolution are discussed, including ramifications for the evolution of human cooperation, technology, and cultural institutions, and for the equivalency of multilevel selection and inclusive fitness approaches.


Adaptation and the evolution of parasite virulence in a connected world
It is demonstrated that reduced virulence can be understood as an individual-level adaptation by the parasite to maximize its inclusive fitness, and clarifies the links with virulence theory more generally.
Capturing the superorganism: a formal theory of group adaptation
This work provides the first formal theory of group adaptation and captures the superorganism in the form of a ‘group as maximizing agent’ analogy that links an optimization program to a model of a group‐structured population.
The evolution of reproductive restraint through social communication.
  • Justin Werfel, Y. Bar-Yam
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2004
This quantitative simulation model shows how the key evolutionary transition from solitary living to sociality can occur, and the process described here of cooperation evolving through communication may also help to explain other major evolutionary transitions such as intercellular communication leading to multicellular organisms.
Social semantics: how useful has group selection been?
The last 45 years of research provide clear evidence of the relative use of the kin and group selection approaches, whereas there is no formal theory of group selection.
Models of Parasite Virulence
  • S. Frank
  • Biology
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1996
Standard models of parasite virulence are summarized and connected to diverse topics, such as the virulence of bacterial plasmids, the evolution of genomes, and the processes that influence conflict and cooperation among the earliest replicators near the origin of life.
The joint effects of kin, multilevel selection and indirect genetic effects on response to genetic selection
This work presents a measure for the degree of multilevel selection, which is the natural partner of relatedness in expressions for response, indicating that both factors have exactly the same effect in response to selection.
The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies
The Pulitzer Prize-winning authors of The Ants render the extraordinary lives of the social insects in this visually spectacular volume, and provides a deep look into a part of the living world hitherto glimpsed by only a very few.
Rethinking the Theoretical Foundation of Sociobiology
This article takes a “back to basics” approach, explaining what group selection is, why its rejection was regarded as so important, and how it has been revived based on a more careful formulation and subsequent research.
Evolution in spatial predator-prey models and the "prudent predator": The inadequacy of steady-state organism fitness and the concept of individual and group selection
This paper presents a meta-modelling system that automates the very labor-intensive and therefore time-heavy and expensive and therefore expensive and expensive process of designing and implementing complex complex systems.
Genetics of survival in cannibalistic laying hens : the contribution of social effects
Results in this thesis suggest that prospects for reducing mortality due to cannibalism by means of genetic selection are good and selection methods that incorporate social interactions may lead to substantial reduction of one of the major welfare problems in egg production.