Multilayered extensions to the speech synthesis markup language for describing expressiveness

  title={Multilayered extensions to the speech synthesis markup language for describing expressiveness},
  author={Ellen Eide and Raimo Bakis and Wael Hamza and John F. Pitrelli},
In this paper we discuss possible extensions to the Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) to facilitate the generation of synthetic expressive speech. The proposed extensions are hierarchical in nature, allowing specification in terms of physical parameters such as instantaneous pitch, higher-level parameters such as ToBI labels, or abstract concepts such as emotions. Low-level tags tend to change their values frequently, even within a word, while the more abstract tags generally apply to… CONTINUE READING

From This Paper

Figures, tables, and topics from this paper.


Publications referenced by this paper.
Showing 1-4 of 4 references

Expressive peech Synthesis Using A Concatenative Synthesizer.

  • M. ulut, S. Narayanan, A. Syrdal
  • roc. ICSLP
  • 2002

Preservation, Identification, and Use of Emotion n a Text-to-speech System.

  • E. ide
  • IEEE Workshop on Speech ynthesis. Santa Monica…
  • 2002

Generating Expression in Synthesized peech.

  • ahn, E Janet
  • S.M. Thesis. M.I.T
  • 1989