Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps

@article{Hines2007MultigenePR,
  title={Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps},
  author={Heather M. Hines and J. H. Hunt and Timothy K. O’Connor and Joseph J Gillespie and Sydney Anne Cameron},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  year={2007},
  volume={104},
  pages={3295 - 3299}
}
Eusocial wasps of the family Vespidae are thought to have derived their social behavior from a common ancestor that had a rudimentary caste-containing social system. In support of this behavioral scenario, the leading phylogenetic hypothesis of Vespidae places the eusocial wasps (subfamilies Stenogastrinae, Polistinae, and Vespinae) as a derived monophyletic clade, thus implying a single origin of eusocial behavior. This perspective has shaped the investigation and interpretation of vespid… 

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