Multidimensional scaling reveals a color dimension unique to ‘color-deficient’ observers

  title={Multidimensional scaling reveals a color dimension unique to ‘color-deficient’ observers},
  author={Jenny M Bosten and J Robinson and Gabriele Jordan and J. D. Mollon},
  journal={Current Biology},
Normal color vision depends on the relative rates at which photons are absorbed in three types of retinal cone:short-wave (S), middle-wave (M) and long-wave (L) cones, maximally sensitive near 430, 530 and 560nm, respectively. But 6% of men exhibit an X-linked variant form of color vision called deuteranomaly [1]. Their color vision is thought to depend on S cones and two forms of long-wave cone (L, L′) [2,3]. The two types of L cone contain photopigments that are maximally sensitive near 560nm… Expand
Simulations of adaptation and color appearance in observers with varying spectral sensitivity
The simulations highlight the role that known processes of adaptation may play in compensating color appearance for variations in sensitivity both within and across observers, and provide a novel tool for visualizing the perceptual consequences of any variation in visual sensitivity including changes associated with development or disease. Expand
Task-dependent contrast gain in anomalous trichromats
The current study used threshold detection, suprathreshold contrast matching, and a reaction-time task to compare contrast coding in normal and anomalous observers along the cardinal cone-opponent axes and provides evidence for compensation in anomalous trichromats. Expand
Adaptive Changes in Color Vision from Long-Term Filter Usage in Anomalous but Not Normal Trichromacy
A boosted chromatic response from exposure to enhanced chromatic contrasts in observers with reduced spectral discrimination is demonstrated, inviting the suggestion that modifications of photoreceptor signals activate a plastic post-receptoral substrate that could potentially be exploited for visual rehabilitation. Expand
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Though nothing is known, these signals presumably interface with motor programs and emotional centers of the brain to mediate the widely acknowledged emotional salience of color. Expand
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Anomalous trichromats have reduced sensitivity to the L-M dimension of color space due to the reduced separation between the spectral sensitivities of their L and M cones. Despite this, previous workExpand
Orthogonal Relations and Color Constancy in Dichromatic Colorblindness
Previously published data on dichromacy are plotted and analyzed in CIELUV uniform color space to find spatial relations in terms of color appearance space, and Wavelength shifts between illuminants demonstrate chromatic adaptation correlates exactly with that in trichromatic vision. Expand
The dimensionality of color vision in carriers of anomalous trichromacy.
It is suggested that most carriers of color anomaly do not exhibit four-dimensional color vision, and so it is believed that anomalous trichromacy is unlikely to be maintained by an advantage to the carriers in discriminating colors. Expand
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This Element focuses on new knowledge about the linkages between color vision genetics and color perception variation and the color perception consequences of inheriting alternative, nonnormative, forms of genetic sequence variation. Expand
Compensation for red-green contrast loss in anomalous trichromats.
The contraction along the L/(L + M) axis shown in the perceptual color spaces of anomalous trichromats is far smaller than predicted by their reduced sensitivity, suggesting that an adaptive adjustment of postreceptoral gain may magnify the cone signals of anomalies to exploit the range of available postreceptionoral neural signals. Expand
Color vision diversity and significance in primates inferred from genetic and field studies
New World monkeys can serve as an excellent model to understand and evaluate the adaptive significance of primate trichromacy in a behavioral context and introduce the genetic and behavioral study of vision-behavior interrelationships in free-ranging sympatric capuchin and spider monkey populations in Costa Rica. Expand


Multidimensional Scaling of Large Chromatic Differences by Normal and Color-Deficient Subjects
The following two articles offer a glimpse at current experimental psychology in the Soviet Union, normally screened from the English-speaking world by all but impenetrable language barriers. TheExpand
Color spaces of color-normal and color-abnormal observers reconstructed from response times and dissimilarity ratings
This study concluded that RTs are suitable for detecting temporal differences in color processing but, for that very same reason, rather ill-suited for reconstructing color spaces, and that the rating procedure yielded the most logical results for recovering color space. Expand
Constructing the color space of the deuteranomalous observer
The discriminability of 66 pairs of colors was quantified by measuring the time that observers needed to judge whether the two colors in each pair were the same or different. A multidimensionalExpand
Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance.
A plane of constant luminance provides a chromaticity diagram in which excitation of each cone type is represented by a linear scale (horizontal or vertical), and in which the center-of-gravity rule applies with weights proportional to luminance. Expand
The relative salience of the cardinal axes of colour space in normal and anomalous trichromats
By imposing rival perceptual organizations on a regular spatial array, we have measured the relative salience of colour differences along the two cardinal axes of colour space. Results are reportedExpand
Full-spectrum cone sensitivity functions for X-chromosome-linked anomalous trichromats.
The cone fundamentals for X-chromosome-linked anomalous trichromats for the wavelength range of 400-700 nm were derived and it was found that the protanomalous M- and L'-cone pigments are separated by 10 nm and the deuteranomalously M'- and L-cone piglets are separatedBy 6 nm, where M and L indicate middle- and long-wavelength sensitive, respectively. Expand
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The fact that no bias was observed in the results of the triads-ratio judgments suggests that this procedure is the more appropriate technique for scaling color relations. Expand
The red and green cone visual pigments of deuternomalous trichromacy.
In red‐green spectral range, these spectra are accurately described by different linear combinations of the color matching functions of the same deuteranomalous whose matches the two deuters accept, which leads to a general hypothesis about the nature of all forms of red‐ green colour vision defects transmitted recessively on the X chromosome. Expand
Position of a 'green-red' hybrid gene in the visual pigment array determines colour-vision phenotype
It is concluded that the green-red hybrid gene will only cause deutan defects when it occupies the second position of the pigment gene array. Expand
Colour-Blindness and Camouflage
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THE chief characteristic which distinguishes colourblind people from those with normal vision, is a reduced ability to distinguish colours that are normally quite distinct. Superficially, therefore,Expand