# Multidimensional scaling by optimizing goodness of fit to a nonmetric hypothesis

@article{Kruskal1964MultidimensionalSB, title={Multidimensional scaling by optimizing goodness of fit to a nonmetric hypothesis}, author={Joseph B. Kruskal}, journal={Psychometrika}, year={1964}, volume={29}, pages={1-27} }

Multidimensional scaling is the problem of representingn objects geometrically byn points, so that the interpoint distances correspond in some sense to experimental dissimilarities between objects. In just what sense distances and dissimilarities should correspond has been left rather vague in most approaches, thus leaving these approaches logically incomplete. Our fundamental hypothesis is that dissimilarities and distances are monotonically related. We define a quantitative, intuitively…

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