Multichannel audio source separation: Variational inference of time-frequency sources from time-domain observations
Several probabilistic models involving latent components have been proposed for modeling time-frequency (TF) representations of audio signals such as spectrograms, notably in the nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) literature. Among them, the recent high-resolution NMF (HR-NMF) model is able to take both phases and local correlations in each frequency band into account, and its potential has been illustrated in applications such as source separation and audio inpainting. In this paper, HR-NMF is extended to multichannel signals and to convolutive mixtures. The new model can represent a variety of stationary and non-stationary signals, including autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes and mixtures of damped sinusoids. A fast variational expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is proposed to estimate the enhanced model. This algorithm is applied to piano signals, and proves capable of accurately modeling reverberation, restoring missing observations, and separating pure tones with close frequencies.