Dynamic change of surface microbiota with different environmental cleaning methods between two wards in a hospital
A susceptibility surveillance study of 1,274 bacterial isolates recovered from various clinical specimens from patients in intensive care units (ICUs) of five major teaching hospitals was carried out from March, 2000, to June, 2000, in Taiwan. This study demonstrated a high rate (66%) of oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA), a high rate of nonsusceptibility to penicillin (intermediate, 50% and highly resistant, 8%), and high rates of cefotaxime nonsusceptibility for S. pneumoniae (intermediate, 29% and resistant, 4%), Enterobacter cloacae (57%), Serratia marcescens (34%), and Citrobacter freundii (60%). High rate of ceftazidime nonsusceptibility for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%), and high rates of imipenem nonsusceptibility for P. aeruginosa (15%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (22%) were also found. The percentage (11.9%) of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was greater than that (11.3%) for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Rates of quinupristin-dalfopristin nonsusceptibility for S. pneumoniae (42%), Enterococcus faecium (71%), and ORSA (39%) were high, but no vancomycin-resistant enterococci were found in this study. The resistance rates of some pathogen varied by institution or type of ICUs. Surveillance for antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens in hospitals, particularly in ICU settings with a preexisting higher resistance burden, is mandatory in establishing and/or modifying guidelines for empirical treatment of severe infections in ICU patients caused by these antimicrobial-resistant pathogens.