Adoptive transfer of Treg depleted autologous T cells in advanced renal cell carcinoma
PURPOSE To prospectively evaluate in a multicenter randomized trial the antitumor activity of CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in combination with low-dose recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2), compared with rIL-2 alone, after radical nephrectomy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between December 1994 and March 1997, 178 patients with resectable primary tumors were enrolled at 29 centers in the United States and Europe. Patients underwent total nephrectomy, recovered, and were randomized to receive either CD8(+) TILs (5 x 10(7) to 3 x 10(10) cells intravenously, day 1) plus rIL-2 (one to four cycles: 5 x 10(6) IU/m(2) by continuous infusion daily for 4 days per week for 4 weeks) (TIL/rIL-2 group) or placebo cell infusion plus rIL-2 (identical regimen) (rIL-2 control group). Primary tumor specimens were cultured at a central cell-processing center in serum-free medium containing rIL-2 to generate TILs. RESULTS Of 178 enrolled patients, 160 were randomized (TIL/rIL-2 group, n = 81; rIL-2 control group, n = 79). Twenty randomized patients received no treatment after nephrectomy because of surgical complications (four patients), operative mortality (two patients), or ineligibility for rIL-2 therapy (14 patients). Among 72 patients eligible for TIL/rIL-2 therapy, 33 (41%) received no TIL therapy because of an insufficient number of viable cells. Intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated objective response rates of 9.9% v 11.4% and 1-year survival rates of 55% v 47% in the TIL/rIL-2 and rIL-2 control groups, respectively. The study was terminated early for lack of efficacy as determined by the Data Safety Monitoring Board. CONCLUSION Treatment with CD8(+) TILs did not improve response rate or survival in patients treated with low-dose rIL-2 after nephrectomy.