Multi-axis passive and active stiffnesses of the glenohumeral joint.

@article{Makhsous2004MultiaxisPA,
  title={Multi-axis passive and active stiffnesses of the glenohumeral joint.},
  author={Mohsen Makhsous and Fang Lin and Li-Qun Zhang},
  journal={Clinical biomechanics},
  year={2004},
  volume={19 2},
  pages={
          107-15
        }
}
OBJECTIVE To investigate passive and active glenohumeral stiffness in the anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior directions at different lateral positions of the humerus. DESIGN Glenohumeral stiffness along multiple axes was determined in fresh-frozen shoulder specimens under both passive (no simulated muscle contraction) and active (with simulated muscle contraction) conditions. BACKGROUND Glenohumeral laxity has been evaluated in various studies with focus on one of the multiple… CONTINUE READING

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