Multi‐hop whistler‐mode ELF/VLF signals and triggered emissions excited by the HAARP HF heater

@article{Inan2004MultihopWE,
  title={Multi‐hop whistler‐mode ELF/VLF signals and triggered emissions excited by the HAARP HF heater},
  author={U. S. Inan and M. Gołkowski and Donald L. Carpenter and N. Reddell and Robert C. Moore and Timothy F. Bell and Evans W. Paschal and Paul A. Kossey and E. J. Kennedy and S. Meth},
  journal={Geophysical Research Letters},
  year={2004},
  volume={31}
}
Modulated heating of the lower ionosphere with the HAARP HF heater is used to excite 1–2 kHz signals observed on a ship‐borne receiver in the geomagnetic conjugate hemisphere after propagating as ducted whistler‐mode signals. These 1‐hop signals are believed to be amplified, and are accompanied by triggered emissions. Simultaneous observations near (∼30 km) HAARP show 2‐hop signals which travel to the northern hemisphere upon reflection from the ionosphere in the south. Multiple reflected… 
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