author={Caroline Fenton and Gillian M. Keating and Katherine A. Lyseng-Williamson},
SummaryAbstractMoxonidine (Physiotens®, Moxon®, Cynt®) is an orally administered imidazoline compound with selective agonist activity at imidazoline I1 receptors and only minor activity at α2-adrenoceptors. Moxonidine acts centrally to reduce peripheral sympathetic activity, thus decreasing peripheral vascular resistance. In patients with mild to moderate hypertension, moxonidine reduces blood pressure (BP) as effectively as most first-line antihypertensives when used as monotherapy and is also… 

Effect of moxonidine and amlodipine on serum YKL-40, plasma lipids and insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant hypertensive patients—a randomized, crossover trial

Moxonidine is an effective adjunctive antihypertensive agent for use in patients with hypertension and insulin resistance that induces beneficial effects on serum lipid profile but does not reduce insulin resistance, inflammation or serum YKL-40 concentration.

An "I" on cardiac hypertrophic remodelling: imidazoline receptors and heart disease.


Moxonidine provided better perioperative hemodynamic stability in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries, and significant rise in HR, SBP, DBP, and mean BP was noted in the P group in comparison to mox onidine group.

The role of selective imidazoline receptor agonists in modern hypertension management: an international real-world survey (STRAIGHT)

An international survey to evaluate contemporary hypertension management strategies in countries with high prescription rates of SIRAs was conducted and appeared to be guided predominantly by considerations relating to the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism of sympathetic inhibition.

Preferred Fourth-Line Pharmacotherapy for Resistant Hypertension: Are We There Yet?

A lack of robust clinical evidence for preferred use of most of these antihypertensive drug classes in the setting of RH is revealed, and a lack of direct comparative trials that could assist in identifying a preferred fourth-line pharmacologic approach is revealed.

Hemodynamic Stress Response during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Effect of Oral Administration of Moxonidine

Moxonidine provided better preoperative hemodynamic stability in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries, and significant rise in HR, SBP, DBP, and mean BP was noted in the P group in comparison to mox onidine group.

Treatment of Hypertension in Obese Patients

A number of novel drug and invasive therapies are in development and hold significant potential for the effective management of obesity-related hypertension.

Activation of imidazoline I1 receptor by moxonidine regulates the progression of liver fibrosis in the Nrf2-dependent pathway.

Vasomotor Center? A Possible Role in the Treatment of Hypertension

The role of VMC (Vasomotor Center) in hypertension along with adding stress-relieving methods in lifestyle measures to prevent an epidemic of hypertension is reviewed.



Pharmacology of moxonidine, an I1-imidazoline receptor agonist.

Moxonidine, by its novel mode of action, represents a new therapeutic principle in the treatment of hypertension and may prove to be effective in slowing progression of the disease by providing protective effects beyond merely blood pressure reduction.

Pharmacology and clinical use of moxonidine, a new centrally acting sympatholytic antihypertensive agent.

Acute haemodynamic studies indicate that moxonidine results in a fall of BP due to a decline in systemic vascular resistance, while the heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume and pulmonary artery pressures are not affected, and suggesting possible retention in the central nervous system (CNS).

Moxonidine. A review of its pharmacology, and therapeutic use in essential hypertension.

Moxonidine appears to be a more attractive option than oral clonidine, and may be considered along with the other classes of drug used to treat patients with mild to moderate hypertension.

The I1-imidazoline agonist moxonidine decreases sympathetic tone under physical and mental stress.

Moxonidine appears suitable for the treatment of patients with high SNS activity and hypertension induced by physical or mental stress and may be considered as an alternative to beta-adrenoceptor blockers in selected patients.

Pharmacodynamic Action and Pharmacokinetics of Moxonidine After Single Oral Administration in Hypertensive Patients

A significant decrease of blood pressure, plasma renin activity, norepinephrine, and epinephrine with a single dose of 0.25 mg moxonidine is demonstrated, but no significant effect on pulse rate, salivation, and sedation is demonstrated.

Moxonidine and Ramipril in Patients with Hypertension and Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Lung function was unchanged during treatment with moxonidine, suggesting that this new antihypertensive agent may be an appropriate choice of medication for patients with essential hypertension and concomitant obstructive pulmonary disease.

Comparison of moxonidine and clonidine HCl in treating patients with hypertension.

Moxonidine is as effective as clonidine in monotherapy of mild to moderate essential hypertension and, additionally, neither drug produces clinically important changes in biochemical parameters.

Effects of moxonidine vs. metoprolol on blood pressure and metabolic control in hypertensive subjects with type 2 diabetes.

Results indicate that MOX, unlike MET, may elicit beneficial adaptations in glucose and lipid metabolism in hypertensive subjects with type 2 diabetes, although mean HbA (1c) values did not differ, and may decrease global vascular disease risk to a greater extent than MET.

Moxonidine treatment of hypertensive patients with advanced renal failure

Add-on treatment with 0.3 mg/day moxonidine in hypertensive patients with renal failure is well tolerated and not inferior to 20mg/day nitrendipine with respect to the incidence of specific adverse events and the idea of a sympatholytic drug to be renoprotective is appealing.

Urinary responses to acute moxonidine are inhibited by natriuretic peptide receptor antagonist

It is demonstrated that natriuretic peptides mediate the urinary actions of moxonidine through natriUREtic peptide receptors, which may be altered in hypertension.