Movement of zinc and its functional significance in the brain

  title={Movement of zinc and its functional significance in the brain},
  author={Atsushi Takeda},
  journal={Brain Research Reviews},
  • A. Takeda
  • Published 1 December 2000
  • Biology
  • Brain Research Reviews

Zinc homeostasis and functions of zinc in the brain

Zinc homeostasis in the brain is closely related to neuronal activity and adequate zinc supply is important for brain functions and prevention of neurological diseases.

[Essential trace metals and brain function].

  • A. Takeda
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
  • 2004
It is reported that the brain transferrin concentration is decreased in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's Disease and that brain iron metabolism is also altered.

Release of glutamate and GABA in the hippocampus under zinc deficiency

The present study suggests that the excitability of hippocampal glutamatergic neurons is enhanced by dietary zinc deficiency, and vesicular zinc is responsive to dietary zinc and may decrease easily under zinc deficiency.

Analysis of Brain Function and Prevention of Brain Diseases: the Action of Trace Metals

Dietary zinc deficiency affects zinc homeostasis in the brain, followed by an enhanced excitotoxicity of glutamate in the hippocampus, and Transferrin may be involved in the physiologic transport of iron and manganese into the brain and their utilization there.

Zinc Neurotoxicity and its Role in Neurodegenerative Diseases

The sensitive assay system for zinc neurotoxicity in vitro using GT1-7 cells (immortalized hypothalamic neurons) to elucidate the functions of zinc in neurodegenerative diseases and provides a good method for screening the protective substances of zinc neurot toxicity as a therapeutic target of the global ischemia.

Zinc Signal in Brain Functions

The homeostasis of synaptic Zn2+ signal is critical in both functional and pathological aspects and the physiological significance of intracellular Zn 2+ signaling in brain functions, especially in cognition is summarized.

Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders

An overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, AD, and aging is provided.

Zinc Signaling in the Hippocampus and Its Relation to Pathogenesis of Depression

It is summarized that hippocampal Zn2+ signaling serves to maintain healthy brain and that glucocorticoid signaling, which is responsive to zinc homeostasis in the living body, is linked to the pathophysiology of depression.

Synaptic Zn(2+) homeostasis and its significance.

The significance of synaptic Zn(2+) homeostasis in zincergic neuron activity is summarized and seems to be controlled by the two major pools of ZN(2+), i.e., the synaptic vesicle and the extracellular compartment, in the brain.

Zinc: The brain's dark horse

A greater understanding of zinc's role in the central nervous system may allow for the development of therapeutic approaches where aberrant metal homeostasis is implicated in disease pathogenesis, and in fact its role may be underappreciated.



Neurobiology of zinc and zinc-containing neurons.

Zinc Metabolism in the Brain: Relevance to Human Neurodegenerative Disorders

Increased levels of chelatable zinc have been shown to be present in cell cultures of immune cells undergoing apoptosis, very reminiscent of the zinc staining of neuronal perikarya dying after an episode of ischemia or seizure activity.

Zinc-containing neurons.

Zinc ions are potent modulators of amino acid receptors [especially the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor] and corelease of zinc along with glutamate would provide a mechanism for modulating postsynaptic excitability levels.

Importance of zinc in the central nervous system: the zinc-containing neuron.

The present review outlines the methods used to discover, define and describe zinc-containing neurons; the neuroarchitecture and synaptology of zinc- containing neural circuits; the physiology of regulated vesicular zinc release; the "life cycle" and molecular biology of vesicle zinc; the importance of synaptically released zinc in the normal and pathological processes of the cerebral cortex; and the role of specific and nonspecific stressors in the release of zinc.

A physiological role for endogenous zinc in rat hippocampal synaptic neurotransmission

The study implies that zinc modulates synaptic transmission in the immature hippocampus, a finding that may have implications for understanding benign postnatal seizures in young children suffering with acute zinc deficiency18.

Metal ions and synaptic transmission: think zinc.

  • E. P. Huang
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1997
Wenzel et al. (5) have taken a step toward amending difficulties by showing that a putative zinc transporter (ZnT-3) is specifically localized to the surfaces of glutamate-containing synaptic vesicles of glutamatergic neurons.

Elimination of zinc from synaptic vesicles in the intact mouse brain by disruption of the ZnT3 gene.

It is shown that histochemically reactive zinc, corresponding to the zinc found within synaptic vesicles, was undetectable in the brains of mice with targeted disruption of the ZnT3 gene, and it is suggested that vesicular zinc concentration is determined by the abundance of ZNT3.

Accumulation of Zinc in Degenerating Hippocampal Neurons of ZnT3-Null Mice after Seizures: Evidence against Synaptic Vesicle Origin

Results support the existing idea that zinc is released into extracellular space and then enters neurons to exert a cytotoxic effect, but the origin of zinc is not likely to be synaptic vesicles, because zinc accumulation robustly occurs in ZnT3-null mice lacking synaptic vESicle zinc.

Zinc metabolism in normal and zinc-deficient rat brain