Mouse models of acute promyelocytic leukemia have been generated through transgenic, knock-in, retroviral, and xenograft strategies. These models have been used to elucidate mechanisms underlying leukemogenesis. Among the areas investigated are the role of reciprocal fusions; effects of target cells, expression levels, and mouse strains; cooperating events; and restrictive and permissive factors. These models have also been used to gain insight into the effects of the immune system on leukemic cells and the mechanism of response to retinoic acid. Furthermore, preclinical studies utilizing these mice have advanced therapy for myeloid leukemia.