Efficient production of transgenic mice requires high yields of viable, healthy embryos. Cervical dislocation (without prior anesthesia) rather than CO2 inhalation as a means of euthanasia has been justified on the basis of the increased yield of viable ova, but controlled studies have not directly supported this contention. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) Guides, and respective Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC) have supported the use of CO2 as a preferred, humane method. The study reported here was undertaken to determine the relative yields of viable embryos from mice euthanized either by inhalation of 100% CO2 or by cervical dislocation. Inbred and hybrid mouse strains, representative of common strains used in genetic engineering experimentation included C57BL/6, FVB/N, and B6SJLF1. There was no difference in the embryo yields in comparisons using the two methods of euthanasia (P = 0.534). Decisions regarding the method of euthanasia can be made on the basis of criteria other than those associated with embryo yield and viability.