Motor subcircuits mediating the control of movement extent and speed.

  title={Motor subcircuits mediating the control of movement extent and speed.},
  author={Robert S. Turner and Michel Desmurget and Jeffrey S. Grethe and M. D. Crutcher and Scott T. Grafton},
  journal={Journal of neurophysiology},
  volume={90 6},
The functional correlates of movement extent, speed, and covariates were investigated using PET mapping of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 13 healthy right-handed adults. A whole-arm smooth pursuit tracking task was used to strictly control potential confounds such as movement duration, error, and feedback control. During each of four scans, images of relative rCBF were obtained while subjects matched the constant velocity movements of a target using a joystick-controlled cursor. Between… 

Figures from this paper

Delineating the whole brain BOLD response to passive movement kinematics
This represents the first investigation into whole brain response to parametric changes in passive movement kinematics and has implications towards neural correlates of robotic rehabilitation.
Cortical and subcortical areas involved in the regulation of reach movement speed in the human brain: An fMRI study
A network of multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions that are involved in speed regulation among which putamen, anterior thalamus, and PMC show highest specificity to speed are revealed, suggesting a basal‐ganglia‐thalamo‐ cortical loop for speed regulation.
Functional interactions between the cerebellum and the premotor cortex for error correction during the slow rate force production task: an fMRI study
Although neuroimaging studies indicate that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal changes in the cerebellum (CB) during the performance of a target movement reflect functions of error
Basal ganglia contribution to the initiation of corrective submovements
3D Cortical electrophysiology of ballistic upper limb movement in humans
Preferential encoding of movement amplitude and speed in the primary motor cortex and cerebellum
C cumulative evidence supporting preferential encoding of kinematic parameters along the motor system is presented, based on blood‐oxygenation‐level dependent signal recorded in a well‐controlled single‐joint wrist‐flexion task, and results suggest that during single-joint movements, distinct kinematics parameters are controlled by largely distinct brain regions that work together to produce and control precise movements.
The activity in the contralateral primary motor cortex, dorsal premotor and supplementary motor area is modulated by performance gains
The results indicate that the amount of activation in the contralateral M1, PMd, and preSMA during the learning of movement sequences is correlated with performance gains and that high level motion features may modulate, or even mask correlations between activity changes and low-level motion attributes.
Motor cortical control of movement speed with implications for brain-machine interface control.
The finding of relatively little speed information in motor cortex inspired a speed-dampening Kalman filter (SDKF) that automatically slows the cursor upon detecting changes in decoded movement direction, which enhances speed control by using prevalent directional signals, rather than requiring speed to be directly decoded from neural activity.
From thinking fast to moving fast: motor control of fast limb movements in healthy individuals
Abstract The ability to produce high movement speeds is a crucial factor in human motor performance, from the skilled athlete to someone avoiding a fall. Despite this relevance, there remains a lack


Motor subcircuits mediating the control of movement velocity: a PET study.
The activation of GP with increasing movement velocity supports the hypothesis that the basal ganglia motor circuit may be involved preferentially in controlling or monitoring the scale and/or dynamics of arm movements.
Parametric Analysis of Functional Neuroimages: Application to a Variable-Rate Motor Task
A method for mathematically modeling the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as a function of experimental parameters using step and linear functions is presented.
Monkey primary motor and premotor cortex: single-cell activity related to prior information about direction and extent of an intended movement.
Behavioral data support a parametric conception of motor programming, i.e., that the programming of the different movement parameters results from assembling separate processes of different duration, compatible with the model in which programming processes are serially and hierachically ordered.
Frequency-Dependent Changes of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow during Finger Movements
Changes correlating with those in the SMA were found in the anterior cingulate gyrus, right prefrontal area, and right thalamus, and the decreases in CBF may reflect a progressive change in performance from reactive to predictive.
An fMRI study of the human cortical motor system response to increasing functional demands.
Regional cerebral blood flow during voluntary arm and hand movements in human subjects.
The data indicate that neither "fractionation" nor distal movement per se cause selective activation of sensorimotor cortex, and this finding does not prove unequivocally a "selective" role of the nonprimary motor areas in proximal movement.
Motor cortical representation of speed and direction during reaching.
The motor cortical substrate associated with reaching was studied as monkeys moved their hands from a central position to one of eight targets spaced around a circle, and the distributions of preferred directions were found to be significantly different from cortical activity.
Motor cortical activity during drawing movements: single-unit activity during sinusoid tracing.
Finger speed during figure tracing varied inversely with path curvature with the same relation that has been found during human drawing, and movement direction as it changed during the tracing task was an important factor in the discharge pattern of cells that had discharge patterns that could be represented by the cosine tuning function.
Relationship between Finger Movement Rate and Functional Magnetic Resonance Signal Change in Human Primary Motor Cortex
  • S. Rao, P. Bandettini, J. Hyde
  • Biology, Psychology
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • 1996
Results of this study indicated a positive linear relationship between movement rate and FMRI signal change and the number of voxels demonstrating functional activity increased significantly with faster movement rates.
Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Simple Spike Discharge Encodes Movement Velocity in Primates during Visuomotor Arm Tracking
Simple spike discharge appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity.