Motor patterns during kicking movements in the locust

  title={Motor patterns during kicking movements in the locust},
  author={Malcolm Burrows},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology A},
  • M. Burrows
  • Published 1 March 1995
  • Biology
  • Journal of Comparative Physiology A
Locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) use a distinctive motor pattern to extend the tibia of a hind leg rapidly in a kick. The necessary force is generated by an almost isometric contraction of the extensor tibiae muscle restrained by the co-contraction of the flexor tibiae (co-contraction phase) and aided by the mechanics of the femoro-tibial joint. The stored energy is delivered suddenly when the flexor muscle is inhibited. This paper analyses the activity of motor neurons to the major hind leg… 
Proprioceptive feedback in locust kicking and jumping during maturation
Feedback from the anterior campaniform sensillum comprises a significant component of the drive to both FETi and flexor activity during co-contraction in mature animals and that the changes in this feedback contribute to the developmental change in behaviour.
Neural control and coordination of jumping in froghopper insects.
These features of the motor pattern and the coupling between motor neurons to the two hind legs ensure powerful movements to propel rapid jumping in froghopper insects.
Proprioceptors monitoring forces in a locust hind leg during kicking form negative feedback loops with flexor tibiae motor neurons
The lump receptor could regulate the output of the flexor motor neurons and, thus, limit the amount of force generated during co-contraction and contribute to the inhibition of the Flexor tibiae muscle at the end of co- Contraction that allows rapid kicking movements to occur.
Motor control of aimed limb movements in an insect.
This work relates the activity of excitatory motor neurons of the locust femoro-tibial joint to the consequent kinematics of hind leg movements made during aimed scratching and demonstrates how aimed scratching movements result from interactions between biomechanical features of the musculo-skeletal system and patterns of motor neuron recruitment.
Ballistic movements of jumping legs implemented as variable components of cricket behaviour
All ballistic movements of cricket knees are elicited by a basic but variable motor pattern: knee flexions by co-contraction of the antagonists prepare catapult extensions with speeds and forces as required in the different behaviours.
Feed-forward motor control of ultrafast, ballistic movements
Results show that mantis shrimp can generate kinematically variable strikes and that their kinematics can be changed through adjustments to motor activity prior to the movement, thus supporting an upstream, central-nervous-system-based control of ultrafast movement.
Local Innervation Patterns of the Metathoracic Flexor and Extensor Tibiae Motor Neurons in the Cricket Gryllus bimaculatus
The motor innervation patterns of the metathoracic flexor and extensor tibiae muscles in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, were investigated by differential back-fills and nerve recordings and suggest that the most proximal and distal parts of the flexor muscle participate synergistically in fine motor control while the rest participates in powerful drive of tibial flexion movement.
Task-specific modulation of a proprioceptive reflex in a walking insect
Investigating whether the processing of movement and position signals of the FTi joint is task-specifically modified in the generation of adaptive leg movements, which is required when locomotion is adapted to changes in walking direction or in turning movements, revealed that the nervous system modulates proprioceptive reflexes in individual legs during task- specific walking adaptation.
Actions of motor neurons and leg muscles in jumping by planthopper insects (hemiptera, issidae)
To understand the catapult mechanism that propels jumping in a planthopper insect, the innervation and action of key muscles were analyzed and Muscle 133b,c activated synchronously on both sides, are responsible for generating the power, and M133a and its giant neuron may play a role in triggering the release of a jump.
Development and deposition of resilin in energy stores for locust jumping
  • M. Burrows
  • Engineering
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2016
The amount of resilin deposited in the two energy stores for jumping in the locust changes with the moulting cycle, so that at 4 weeks old the thickness in the semi-lunar processes has increased fourfold.


Locusts Use the Same Basic Motor Pattern in Swimming as in Jumping and Kicking
The motor pattern that brings about the extension of the hind tibiae is described from extracellular recording in the tibial muscles during swimming.
The locust jump. II. Neural circuits of the motor programme.
Neural circuits which co-ordinate the motorneurones of the meta-thoracic tibiae of the locust in jumping and kicking have been investigated and a central excitatory connexion from the fast extensor to flexor motorneerones is confirmed.
The Role of Fast Extensor Motor Activity in the Locust Kick Reconsidered
The overall conclusion is that the model is not correct, since considerable experimentally induced changes in FETi activity and ETi tension had no obvious effects on the motor programme.
Triggering of locust jump by multimodal inhibitory interneurons.
It is proposed that proprioceptive feedback during the cocontraction phase depolarizes the M-neurons to decrease their threshold, thus enabling extrinsic sensory stimuli to generate action potentials in both M-NEurons and in so doing trigger a jump.
Interneurons coactivating hindleg flexor and extensor motoneurons in the locust
It is proposed that the C-neurons function to produce the cocking response, which resulted in the tibiae being locked into full flexion and, very often, to the initiation of the co-contraction phase of the jump.
Intracellular recordings from interneurones and motoneurones during bilateral kicks in the locust: implications for mechanisms controlling the jump
It is concluded that the system generating the motor programme for a kick (jump) is more complex than proposed in previous studies.
Innervation patterns of inhibitory motor neurones in the thorax of the locust.
Tests fail, however, to reveal evidence for any electrical or synaptic coupling between AI and PI, which receive many synaptic inputs in common and show similar patterns of spikes during imposed movements of a tibia.
Physiological and Ultrastructural Characterization of a Central Synaptic Connection between Identified Motor Neurons in the Locust
An excitatory connection between an extensor and several flexor tibiae motor neurons that innervate antagonistic muscles in the hind leg of a locust has been characterized using physiological and
The locust jump
The locust jumps by a rapid extension of its metathoracic tibiae by co-contracting with the flexor muscle, and there has to be considerable structural specialisation of the joint to enable theflexor to prevent the tibia moving under the extensor tension.
The neural basis for locust jumping