Esophageal motor disorders may be clearly primary, as in achalasia or diffuse esophageal spasm (DES), or clearly secondary, as in scleroderma or intrathoracic malignancy. In patients with gastroesophageal reflux, abnormal motility of the esophageal body and stomach, and lower esophageal spasm (LES) appear to predispose patients to reflux. It is possible… (More)
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