Motor Schema — Based Mobile Robot Navigation

  title={Motor Schema — Based Mobile Robot Navigation},
  author={Ronald C. Arkin},
  journal={The International Journal of Robotics Research},
  pages={112 - 92}
  • R. Arkin
  • Published 1 August 1989
  • Computer Science
  • The International Journal of Robotics Research
Motor schemas serve as the basic unit of behavior specifica tion for the navigation of a mobile robot. They are multiple concurrent processes that operate in conjunction with asso ciated perceptual schemas and contribute independently to the overall concerted action of the vehicle. The motivation be hind the use of schemas for this domain is drawn from neuro- scientific, psychological, and robotic sources. A variant of the potential field method is used to produce the appropriate velocity and… 

Figures from this paper

The role of mental rotations in primate-inspired robot navigation
  • R. Arkin
  • Psychology
    Cognitive Processing
  • 2012
The role of this cognitive capacity of a primate’s spatial ability of mental rotation is presented as an adjunct to existing robotic control systems, with the underlying approach being derived from studies of primate spatial cognition.
Temporal coordination of perceptual algorithms for mobile robot navigation
A methodology for integrating multiple perceptual algorithms within a reactive robotic control system is presented. A model using finite state accepters is developed as a means for expressing
Study of behaviors subsumed with the generation of motor schemas in LEGO NXT 2.0
One of the objectives of navigation is equipping robot with enough autonomous algorithms that allow it going from one point to another one, avoiding collisions with static or dynamic obstacles,
Envisioning: Mental Rotation-based Semi-reactive Robot Control
This paper describes ongoing research into the role of optic-flow de- rived spatial representations and their relation to cognitive computational mod- els of mental rotation in primates, with the
Motor Schema-Based Formation Control for Multiagent Robot Teams
New reactive behaviors that implement formations in multi-robot teams are presented and evaluated. These motor schemas, or primitive behaviors, for relative positional maintenance are integrated with
Basic Visual and Motor Agents for Increasingly Complex Behavior Generation on a Mobile Robot
This work addresses the guidelines that have been followed to construct basic behavioral agents for visually guided navigation within the framework of a hierarchical architecture and illustrates how a complex behavior results from the combination of lower level agents always connected to the basic motor agents.
Behavior-Based Robot Navigation for Extended Domains
  • R. Arkin
  • Computer Science
    Adapt. Behav.
  • 1992
This article describes how reactive (behavior-based) systems can be applied to new and more difficult target domains, and schema-based navigation is shown to be both feasible and useful in two new areas: three-dimensional navigation for use in aerospace and undersea applications, and "two and one-half"-dimensional surroundings for outdoor navigation in rough terrain.
Ecological Robotics: A Schema-Theoretic Approach
This research effort is tied together by a collection of software tools including: NSL, a neural simulation language; ASL, an abstract schema language; and MissionLab, a schema-based mission-oriented simulation and robot implementation environment.
Primate-inspired mental rotations: Implications for robot control
This paper describes research into the role of optic-flow derived spatial representations and their relation to cognitive computational models of mental rotation in primates, with the goal of
Avoiding the past: a simple but effective strategy for reactive navigation
  • T. Balch, R. Arkin
  • Computer Science
    [1993] Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
  • 1993
It is shown that the addition of a local spatial memory that allows a robot to avoid areas that have already been visited offers a solution to the box canyon and other navigational problems.


An architecture for reflexive autonomous vehicle control
  • D. Payton
  • Computer Science
    Proceedings. 1986 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
  • 1986
A software architecture to support the planning and control requirements of an autonomous land vehicle designed specifically to handle diverse terrain with maximal speed, efficacy and versatility through the use of a library of reflexive strategies specialized to particular needs.
Arbitration of Multiple Control Strategies for Mobile Robots
Reliability and robustness are of primary importance in a mobile robot control system. Widely. varying operating environments place such stringent. demands on the navigation system that no single
A robust layered control system for a mobile robot
  • R. Brooks
  • Computer Science
    IEEE J. Robotics Autom.
  • 1986
A new architecture for controlling mobile robots is described, building a robust and flexible robot control system that has been used to control a mobile robot wandering around unconstrained laboratory areas and computer machine rooms.
Automatic Planning of Manipulator Transfer Movements
The class of problems that involve finding where to place or how to move a solid object in the presence of obstacles is discussed and a method of computing an explicit representation of the manipulator configurations that would bring about a collision is discussed.
Asynchronous Distributed Control System For A Mobile Robot
The subsumption architecture, a design methodology for multiprocessor control systems based on a new decomposition of problems into task-achieving behaviors, is described and demonstrated by showing how two different control systems can be built on top of the same set of core behaviors.
A System for Programming and Controlling Sensor-Based Robot Manipulators
  • C. C. Geschke
  • Computer Science
    IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
  • 1983
An approach to programming and controlling robot manipulators which facilitates the use of sensory information, which can involve position, orientation, force, and torque information from the robot itself, or data from external sensors.
The acquisition, processing, and use of tactile sensor data in robot control
This dissertation is directed toward developing a sense of touch for robot systems and a classification scheme developed with particular attention paid to the definition of tactile sensors.
Perceptual Structures and Distributed Motor Control
The sections in this article are: The Place of Brain Theory Within Cybernetics, Concepts from Computer Science and Control Theory, Perceptual and Motor Schemas and the Perspective of Artificial Intelligence.
Real-Time Obstacle Avoidance for Manipulators and Mobile Robots
  • O. Khatib
  • Computer Science
    Proceedings. 1985 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
  • 1985
This paper reformulated the manipulator con trol problem as direct control of manipulator motion in operational space—the space in which the task is originally described—rather than as control of the task's corresponding joint space motion obtained only after geometric and geometric transformation.