Motor Planning

@article{Wong2015MotorP,
  title={Motor Planning},
  author={Aaron L. Wong and Adrian M. Haith and John W. Krakauer},
  journal={The Neuroscientist},
  year={2015},
  volume={21},
  pages={385 - 398}
}
Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction… Expand
A motor planning stage represents the shape of upcoming movement trajectories.
TLDR
It is found that the preparation of intentionally curved reaching movements that navigate paths around obstacles incurred a large reaction-time cost, which could not be attributed to nonmotor task requirements and was independent of the execution difficulty of the movement. Expand
Conservation of preparatory neural events in monkey motor cortex regardless of how movement is initiated
TLDR
The findings support the hypothesis that an appropriate preparatory state is consistently achieved before movement onset, and reveal that this process can consume surprisingly little time. Expand
Motor planning flexibly optimizes performance under uncertainty about task goals
TLDR
These findings support the normative view that the motor system selects only a single, flexible motor plan, optimized for uncertain goals, and that participants generate intermediate movements only at (slower) speeds where they measurably improve performance. Expand
A switching cost for motor planning.
TLDR
It is found that randomly changing thewidth of a target over the course of a reaching experiment prevents the motor system from updating the endpoint of movements on the basis of the performance on the previous trial if the width of the target has changed. Expand
Motor Learning.
TLDR
Two classes of emerging research paradigms are discussed-learning of arbitrary visuomotor mappings de novo and learning to execute movements with improved acuity-that more effectively address the acquisition of motor skill. Expand
Sequence learning is driven by improvements in motor planning
TLDR
The findings show that learning effects in a sequence production task can be attributed to an enhanced ability to plan upcoming movements, and support the view that motor sequence learning effects are best characterized by improvements in planning processes that occur both before and concurrently with motor execution. Expand
Prolonged reaction times help to eliminate residual errors in visuomotor adaptation
TLDR
Evidence is found that emphasizing explicit re-aiming strategies (and concomitantly increasing planning time) also lead to complete asymptotic learning, supporting the hypothesis that incomplete adaptation is, in part, the result of an intrinsic speed-accuracy trade-off. Expand
Movement related sensory feedback is not necessary for learning to execute a motor skill
TLDR
A novel motor task requiring the repeated execution of unfamiliar kinematic trajectories where learning was assessed through changes in the speed‐accuracy function (SAF) across five sessions suggests that motor learning occurred in the MI group despite the lack of sensory feedback related to the movement, and that this learning was not simply the result of perceptual learning. Expand
Sequence learning is driven by improvements in motor planning.
TLDR
The findings show that learning effects in a sequence production task can be attributed to an enhanced ability to plan upcoming movements, and support the view that motor sequence learning effects are best characterized by improvements in planning processes that occur both before and concurrently with motor execution. Expand
Target Uncertainty During Motor Decision-Making: The Time Course of Movement Variability Reveals the Effect of Different Sources of Uncertainty on the Control of Reaching Movements
TLDR
The findings suggest that both the level and source of uncertainty have a significant effect on the processing of potential action plans during motor decision-making, which can be revealed through the analysis of the time course of movement variability at the end-effector level. Expand
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