Motivated closing of the mind: "seizing" and "freezing".

@article{Kruglanski1996MotivatedCO,
  title={Motivated closing of the mind: "seizing" and "freezing".},
  author={Arie W. Kruglanski and Donna M. Webster},
  journal={Psychological review},
  year={1996},
  volume={103 2},
  pages={
          263-83
        }
}
A theoretical framework is outlined in which the key construct is the need for (nonspecific) cognitive closure. The need for closure is a desire for definite knowledge on some issue. It represents a dimension of stable individual differences as well as a situationally evocable state. The need for closure has widely ramifying consequences for social-cognitive phenomena at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group levels of analysis. Those consequences derive from 2 general tendencies, those of… Expand
Need for cognitive closure and coping strategies
This study investigated the hypothesis that the process of coping may be motivated by an interaction of directional motivational factors represented by job satisfaction/dissatisfaction and byExpand
“Seizing and Freezing” on a Significant-Person Schema: Need for Closure and the Transference Effect in Social Judgment
TLDR
The discussion considers the role of motivation in the transference effect in relation to the social cognitive and psychodynamic views of transference. Expand
Cognitive and Social Consequences of the Need for Cognitive Closure
This paper reviews research on the antecedent conditions and the cognitive and social consequences of the need for cognitive closure (Kruglanski, 1989). This particular need is conceived of as aExpand
Need for certainty as a psychological nexus for individuals and society.
ness Due to the freezing tendency of individuals high in the need for closure, they have a preference for mental representations that are general and abstract, thus affording closure that isExpand
The need for closure concept disclosed: Delineating motivation from ability in human decision-making
Conflicting theoretical accounts portray need for cognitive closure and its measurement tool either as a unidimensional construct or as combining two separate dimensions that independently tapExpand
Can Working Memory Interference Explain Need for Cognitive Closure Effects in the Perception of Discrimination
by Michaela M. Bucchianeri People often are faced with situations that seem as though they may be discriminatory (e.g., racist, sexist) but which are vague enough to provoke a variety of judgments.Expand
Let’s go forward, I forgive you! On motivational correlates of interpersonal forgiveness
The present paper explored the idea that forgiveness of others may be related with the victims’ individual differences in three motivational factors, as described in the regulatory mode theoryExpand
The Five “A”s of Meaning Maintenance: Finding Meaning in the Theories of Sense-Making
Across eras and literatures, multiple theories have converged on a broad psychological phenomenon: the common compensation behaviors that follow from violations of our committed understandings. TheExpand
The Motivated Gatekeeper of Our Minds: New Directions in Need for Closure Theory and Research
Abstract For over three decades, the need for closure (NFC) construct has played a pivotal role in research programs addressing the motivational underpinnings of knowledge formation, judgment andExpand
The closing of open minds: Need for closure moderates the impact of uncertainty salience on outgroup discrimination.
TLDR
It is found that uncertainty increased discrimination against outgroups among low-NCC individuals but not among high-N CC individuals, and high- NCC individuals tended to be more discriminatory irrespective of uncertainty salience. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 108 REFERENCES
Handbook of motivation and cognition : foundations of social behavior
The apparent success of cognitive principles in accounting for several behaviors has led social psychologists to question the need for motivations and other "hot" dispositional constructs. In theirExpand
Individual differences in need for cognitive closure.
TLDR
The present findings suggest that the Need for Closure Scale is a reliable and valid instrument of considerable potential utility in future "motivated social cognition" research. Expand
Personal Need for Structure: Individual Differences in the Desire for Simple Structure
Individual differences in the desire for simple structure may influence how people understand, experience, and interact with their worlds. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that the Personal Need forExpand
The Freezing and Unfreezing of Impressional Primacy
Three constructive replications were executed to test the hypotheses that primary effects in impression formation are more pronounced when the individual feels (1) high versus low need for cognitiveExpand
The freezing and unfreezing of lay-inferences: Effects on impressional primacy, ethnic stereotyping, and numerical anchoring ☆
Abstract Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that primacy effects, ethnic stereotyping, and numerical anchoring all represent “epistemic freezing” in which the lay-knower becomesExpand
A Theory of Social Comparison Processes
Hypothesis I: There exists, in the human organism, a drive to evaluate his opinions and his abilities. While opinions and abilities may, at first glance, seem to be quite different things, there is aExpand
On Leaping to Conclusions When Feeling Tired: Mental Fatigue Effects on Impressional Primacy
Abstract An experiment examined the impact of mental fatigue on impression formation. Subjects experiencing fatigue as a result of participation in a lengthy final examination at a universityExpand
A Continuum of Impression Formation, from Category-Based to Individuating Processes: Influences of Information and Motivation on Attention and Interpretation
Publisher Summary This chapter presents an integrated understanding of various impression formation processes. The chapter introduces a model of impression formation that integrates social cognitionExpand
The “false consensus effect”: An egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes
Abstract Evidence from four studies demonstrates that social observers tend to perceive a “false consensus” with respect to the relative commonness of their own responses. A related bias was shown toExpand
Motivated augmentation and reduction of the overattribution bias.
  • D. M. Webster
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1993
TLDR
Results of each experiment indicate that the overattribution bias was magnified under high need for cognitive closure and attenuated under highneed to avoid closure, which implies general motivational boundary conditions for inferential biases across judgmental contents. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...