Motivated Reasoning and Performance on the was on Selection Task

@article{Dawson2002MotivatedRA,
  title={Motivated Reasoning and Performance on the was on Selection Task},
  author={Erica Dawson and Thomas Gilovich and Dennis T. Regan},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  year={2002},
  volume={28},
  pages={1379 - 1387}
}
People tend to approach agreeable propositions with a bias toward confirmation and disagreeable propositions with a bias toward disconfirmation. Because the appropriate strategy for solving the four-card Wason selection task is to seek disconfirmation, the authors predicted that people motivated to reject a task rule should be more likely to solve the task than those without such motivation. In two studies, participants who considered a Wason task rule that implied their own early death (Study… 

Figures from this paper

The Effects of Framing and Ego-involvement on Performance on the Wason Selection Task
Man’s deep-rooted tendency to maintain and reinforce a positive self-image makes man inclined to uncritically accept desirable information (the confirmation bias) as well as to criticize and
Perception and misperception of bias in human judgment
  • E. Pronin
  • Psychology
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences
  • 2007
Flexibility in MotiVated reasoning: strategic sHiFts oF reasoning Modes in coVariation judgMent
Research on motivated reasoning has shown that people with certain preferred conclusions sometimes treat information in different ways, depending on what best serves those conclusions. However, this
Mad enough to see the other side: Anger and the search for disconfirming information
TLDR
It is argued that the moving against action tendency associated with anger leads angry individuals to seek out more disconfirming information than sad individuals, attenuating the confirmation bias.
The influence of outcome desirability on optimism.
TLDR
It is argued that despite the prevalence of the idea that desires bias optimism, the empirical evidence regarding this possibility is limited, and the potential for desires to depress rather than enhance optimism is discussed.
Objectivity in the eye of the beholder: divergent perceptions of bias in self versus others.
TLDR
Evidence of this asymmetry between self-perception and social perception and its underlying causes is reviewed and its relation to other psychological phenomena and to interpersonal and intergroup conflict is discussed.
What research participants learn from rewards: A conversational logic analysis of rewarding reasoning performance
Based on a conversational logic framework (Grice, 1975), we examined the implications of rewarding performance on a reasoning task. We argued that, in the interaction between experimenter and
Confirmation Bias in Scientific Reasoning: The Roles of Gender, Perceived Competence and Actual Competence
It has been previously shown that there is a relationship between level of metacognitive ability and estimation of ability for largely verbally-based tasks; those with lessened facility for the task
The Dark Side of Self-Affirmation: Confirmation Bias and Illusory Correlation in Response to Threatening Information
TLDR
Results support models of motivated reasoning that propose that information processing is altered in response to threatening information, by ameliorating the threat, self-affirmation can elicit less effective reasoning strategies.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 53 REFERENCES
Content-Related Schemata Versus Verbal-Framing Effects in Deductive Reasoning
Research within Wason's selection task paradigm has shown that reasoning about an abstract conditional rule is greatly impaired. To test the validity of the rule If p, then q, it is logically crucial
The effect of instructions on performance in the Wason selection task
The effect of instructions on performance on the standard abstract form of Wason’s selection task was examined. Instructions to determine whether or not the statement is violated did not lead to an
The case for motivated reasoning.
  • Z. Kunda
  • Philosophy
    Psychological bulletin
  • 1990
TLDR
It is proposed that motivation may affect reasoning through reliance on a biased set of cognitive processes--that is, strategies for accessing, constructing, and evaluating beliefs--that are considered most likely to yield the desired conclusion.
Motivated Skepticism: Use of Differential Decision Criteria for Preferred and Nonpreferred Conclusions
Three experiments show that information consistent with a preferred conclusion is examined less critically than information inconsistent with a preferred conclusion, and consequently, less
The effect of thematic content on cognitive strategies in the four-card selection task
Prior studies have indicated that thematic materials facilitate reasoning on the four-card selection problem, a task that assesses ability to evaluate logical conditionals of the “if-then” form.
The effects of experience on performance in Wason’s selection task
TLDR
A memory-cuing/reasoning-by-analogy explanation is proposed to account for the direct relationship between performance and the degree of similarity to subjects’ experience.
Motivated sensitivity to preference-inconsistent information.
If preference-inconsistent information initiates more effortful cognitive analysis than does preference-consistent information, then people should be more sensitive processors of information they do
Confirmation, Disconfirmation, and Informa-tion in Hypothesis Testing
Strategies for hypothesis testing in scientific investigation and everyday reasoning have interested both psychologists and philosophers. A number of these scholars stress the importance of
The effects of prior beliefs in reasoning: An associational interpretation
Van Duyne (1976) reports that the subjects’ performance on the Wason selection task is biased by their prior belief in the truth of the rule with which they are reasoning. Specifically, the subjects
...
...