Motion Perception: A Modern View of Wertheimer's 1912 Monograph

@article{Sekuler1996MotionPA,
  title={Motion Perception: A Modern View of Wertheimer's 1912 Monograph},
  author={Robert Sekuler},
  journal={Perception},
  year={1996},
  volume={25},
  pages={1243 - 1258}
}
  • R. Sekuler
  • Published 1 October 1996
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Perception
Max Wertheimer's 1912 monograph on apparent motion is a seminal contribution to the study of visual motion, but its actual contents are not widely known. This article attempts to clarify what the monograph did and did not contribute, emphasizing links between Wertheimer's principal findings and the results of subsequent investigations of motion perception, including currently active lines of research. The topics discussed include Wertheimer's experimental tests of explanations for apparent… Expand
Classification of apparent motion percepts based on temporal factors.
TLDR
This work investigated how the transitions between the different percepts depend on temporal variables over a large range of interstimulus intervals and stimulus onset asynchronies, and presented a hierarchical classification scheme describing the critical temporal conditions for alternative percepts. Expand
Phi is not beta, and why Wertheimer’s discovery launched the Gestalt revolution
TLDR
The history leading to the discovery of the phi-phenomenon is reviewed, and a likely source for the confusion evident in most contemporary research on the pho is described. Expand
Perceptual Dimorphism in Visual Motion from Stationary Patterns
TLDR
Using simplified versions of Fraser and Wilcox's stimuli, it is shown that the strength of the illusory motion depends upon stimulus duration, eccentricity, and contrast, and the relation of Fraser-type motion to other forms of illusORY motion is considered. Expand
Deciding what to see: The role of intention and attention in the perception of apparent motion
TLDR
The experiments reveal a high susceptibility of ambiguous apparent motion to attentional modulation and discusses how feature- and space-based attention mechanisms might contribute to those effects. Expand
Gestalt Theory Reconfigured: Max Wertheimer's Anticipation of Recent Developments in Visual Neuroscience
TLDR
Concepts like contour salience and figure segregation, once the province of Gestalt psychology, are taking on renewed significance as investigators combine neural modeling and psychophysical approaches with electrophysiological ones to characterize neural mechanisms of cognition. Expand
A century of Gestalt psychology in visual perception: I. Perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization.
TLDR
An integrated review of the neural mechanisms involved in contour grouping, border ownership, and figure-ground perception is concluded by evaluating what modern vision science has offered compared to traditional Gestalt psychology, whether the authors can speak of a Gestalt revival, and where the remaining limitations and challenges lie. Expand
Limits of attentive tracking reveal temporal properties of attention
TLDR
The maximum speed for attentive tracking of targets was measured in three types of (radial) motion displays: ambiguous motion where only attentive tracking produced an impression of direction, apparent motion, and continuous motion, where evidence was found for a speed limit to attentive tracking, a maximum rate at which attention could follow a path around the display. Expand
Parallel Search for Conjunctions with Stimuli in Apparent Motion
TLDR
The mechanism underlying apparent motion is attribute-specific; the motion system mediates temporal integration of feature conjunctions before they are identified by the static system; and target detectability in these stimuli relies upon a nonattentive, cooperative, directionally selective motion mechanism that responds to high-level attributes. Expand
Audiovisual influences on the perception of visual apparent motion: exploring the effect of a single sound.
TLDR
Taken together, the findings are consistent with a low-level audiovisual integration approach in which the perceptual system merges temporally proximate sound and light stimuli, thereby provoking the impression of a single multimodal moving object. Expand
Neural responses to apparent motion can be predicted by responses to non-moving stimuli
TLDR
The results show that at both short- and long-range, responses generated by a moving stimulus could be well predicted from conditions in which no motion is perceived, and demonstrates a dissociation between the brain response and the subjective percept of motion. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 69 REFERENCES
Max Wertheimer on seen motion: Theory and evidence
  • V. Sarris
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychological research
  • 1989
TLDR
The Epilogue of this paper examines why important parts of Wertheimer's experimental contributions to psychology may have been underrated or neglected by many contemporary psychologists. Expand
Assimilation and contrast in motion perception: Explorations in cooperativity
TLDR
The shift from assimilation to contrast, as the cinematogram's strips increase in size, suggests that facilitatory and inhibitory influences of the network extend over different distances. Expand
Phenomenal coherence of moving visual patterns
TLDR
It is reported here that coherence depends on the relative contrasts, spatial frequencies and directions of motion of the gratings, and these effects may reveal the previously unstudied properties of a higher order stage of motion analysis. Expand
Intact "biological motion" and "structure from motion" perception in a patient with impaired motion mechanisms: a case study.
TLDR
The patient with bilateral lesions involving the posterior visual pathways, affecting the lateral parietal-temporal-occipital cortex and the underlying white matter was able to identify actions from the evolving pattern of dots placed at the joints of a human actor as well as discriminating three-dimensional structure of a cylinder from motion in a dynamic random-dot field. Expand
Segmentation versus integration in visual motion processing
  • O. Braddick
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Trends in Neurosciences
  • 1993
TLDR
Perceptual experiments give evidence both for integrative processes, which lead to spreading of perceived motion, and for differential processes,Which lead to motion contrast and segmentation. Expand
Focal visual attention produces illusory temporal order and motion sensation
TLDR
The results suggest that the facilitatory effect of attention is exerted at relatively early stages of visual information processing where visual signals are to be fed into the motion detecting mechanism. Expand
Window of visibility: a psychophysical theory of fidelity in time-sampled visual motion displays
TLDR
A simple model of the human perceiver is constructed that predicts the critical sample rate required to render sampled and continuous moving images indistinguishable and is offered as an explanation of many of the phenomena known as apparent motion. Expand
Transparent motion perception as detection of unbalanced motion signals. II. Physiology
  • N. Qian, R. Andersen
  • Physics, Medicine
  • The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1994
TLDR
This article reports physiological recordings from areas V1 and MT of behaving monkeys, comparing single-cell responses to the paired and the unpaired dot patterns, and finds a strong and negative correlation between the degree of the opponent-direction suppression of MT cells and their responses to flicker noise stimuli. Expand
Hysteresis in the perception of motion direction as evidence for neural cooperativity
TLDR
This report strongly supports a cooperative interpretation of motion perception by demonstrating hysteresis in the perception of motion direction and the results agree quantitatively with a mathematical model incorporating nonlinear excitatory and inhibitory interactions among direction-selective elements. Expand
Cooperative phenomena in apparent movement perception of random-dot cinematograms
TLDR
The interaction between adjacent areas whose movement, when perceived independently, was in opposite directions, was examined and it was found that CS depended on the stripe width, and that the average cooperative neighborhood was about 15 min arc in visual angle, suggesting a relationship to the diameter of cortical hypercolumns. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...