Mosaic loss of human Y chromosome: what, how and why

@article{Guo2020MosaicLO,
  title={Mosaic loss of human Y chromosome: what, how and why},
  author={Xihan Guo and Xueqin Dai and Tao Zhou and Han Wang and Juan Ni and Jing-lun Xue and Xu Wang},
  journal={Human Genetics},
  year={2020},
  volume={139},
  pages={421-446}
}
Y chromosome (ChrY), the male-specific sex chromosome, has been considered as a genetic wasteland. Aging-related mosaic loss of ChrY (LOY) has been known for more than half a century, but it was constantly considered as a neutral karyotype related to normal aging. These views have been challenged with genome-wide association studies identifying mosaic LOY in human somatic cells is the most commonly acquired mutation in male’s genome and is associated with a wide spectrum of human diseases… 

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Y chromosomes in men can be lost at every life stage and Y chromosomal loss is associated with various health problems.

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A polygenic risk score predicts mosaic loss of chromosome Y in circulating blood cells

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Repetitive DNA Sequences in the Human Y Chromosome and Male Infertility

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The structure and repetitive sequence of the Y chromosome is introduced, the correlation between Y chromosome various sequence deletions and male infertility is summarized, and research motivation is provided for further explore of the molecules mechanism of Y-deletion andmale infertility.

References

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A genome-wide association study of mosaic loss of chromosome Y in UK Biobank participants identifies 156 genetic determinants of LOY, showing that LOY is associated with cancer and non-haematological health outcomes and supports the hypothesis that clonal haematopoiesis is a biomarker of genomic instability in other tissues.

The Y chromosome: a blueprint for men’s health?

The UTY (Ubiquitously Transcribed Tetratricopeptide Repeat Containing, Y-Linked) gene is emerging as a promising candidate underlying the associations between Y-chromosome variants and the immunity-driven susceptibility to complex disease.

Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome

Rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events.

Mosaic Loss of Chromosome Y in Blood Is Associated with Alzheimer Disease

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Genetics of the human Y chromosome and its association with male infertility

Screening for Yq microdeletions would aid the clinician in determining the cause of male infertility and decide a rational management strategy for the patient, as these deletions are transmitted to 100% of male offspring born through assisted reproduction, testing of Yq deletions will allow the couples to make an informed choice regarding the perpetuation ofmale infertility in future generations.

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A formula to transform mLRRY-values to percentage of LOY that is a more comprehensible unit is presented and could be applied for analyses of the vast amount of SNP-array data already generated in the scientific community, allowing further discoveries of LOy associated diseases and outcomes.

Immune cells lacking Y chromosome have widespread dysregulation of autosomal genes

These findings support the hypothesis that altered immune function in leukocytes is a mechanism directly linking LOY to disease and highlight a surprisingly broad role for chromosome Y challenging the view of it as a “genetic wasteland”.
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