Mortality and morbidity in transsexual subjects treated with cross‐sex hormones

  title={Mortality and morbidity in transsexual subjects treated with cross‐sex hormones},
  author={Paul J M van Kesteren and Henk Asscheman and J. A. J. Megens and Louis J Gooren},
  journal={Clinical Endocrinology},
The optimum steroid hormone treatment regimes for transsexual subjects has not yet been established. We have investigated the mortality and morbidity figures in a large group of transsexual subjects receiving cross‐sex hormone treatment. 

Effect of sex steroid use on cardiovascular risk in transsexual individuals: a systematic review and meta‐analyses

The available evidence on the cardiovascular effects of cross‐sex steroid use in transsexuals is summarized to summarized.

Cross‐sex hormone therapy in Australia: the prescription patterns of clinicians experienced in adult transgender healthcare

Despite increasing demand for transgender healthcare, guidelines for cross‐sex hormone therapy are based on low‐level evidence only. As most data are based on international expert opinions,

Hormone management of trans women

In the previous issue, the authors introduced some principles underlying the medical management of transgender people, before focusing on trans men. In this article they look at the hormonal

Endocrine Treatment of Transsexual Male-to-Female Persons

A reduction of endogenous hormone levels by antiandrogens and their replacement with those of the reassigned sex (estrogens) are needed for gender dysphoric male-to-female adults.

Gender‐affirming hormone therapy and the risk of sex hormone‐dependent tumours in transgender individuals—A systematic review

Whether tumour risk in transgender individuals differs from the general population, to guide clinical screening recommendations, is sought.

Long-term cross-sex hormone treatment is safe in transsexual subjects.

It is suggested that mortality is increased among transsexuals although due to causes unrelated to cross sex replacement therapy, which will benefit the care and treatment of these subjects.

Hormone management of trans men

How hormonal treatments are used in trans men undergoing transition is described and the vital role of primary care in managing ongoing prescribing and monitoring of treatment is discussed.

Effects of antiandrogens on prolactin levels among transgender women on estrogen therapy: A systematic review

Gender-affirming hormone therapy for transgender women includes estrogen and antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate, spironolactone, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists). Both estrogen and antia...

Hormone Treatment of the Adult Transsexual Patient

  • L. Gooren
  • Medicine, Biology
    Hormone Research in Paediatrics
  • 2005
The goal of treatment in female-to-male transsexuals is to induce virilization, including a male pattern of sexual hair, a male voice and male physical contours, and to stop menses.

Effect of gender‐affirming hormone use on coagulation profiles in transmen and transwomen

The transgender population that uses gender‐affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) is rapidly growing and the effects of GAHT on coagulation parameters associated with venous thromboembolism risk are examined.



Ischemic cerebrovascular disease and hormone therapy for infertility and transsexualism

Two patients who experienced ischemic cerebrovascular symptoms in unusual clinical settings of hormone therapy are reported to highlight an emerging risk factor for stroke in the young.

Physical and hormonal evaluation of transsexual patients: A longitudinal study

Based on the data generated by this study, it is recommended as hormonal therapy 0.1–0.5 mg/day of ethinyl estradiol or 7.5–10 mg/ day of conjugated estrogen for male-to-female transsexuals, and intramuscular testosterone cypionate, 200 mg every 2 weeks, for female- to-male transsexuals.

An androgen‐associated hepatic adenoma in a trans‐sexual

There appears to be an association between various steroid preparations and hepatic neoplasia and reports of such cases with all relevant data will allow a balanced assessment of the problem to be made.

Sex reassignment surgery: A study of 141 dutch transsexuals

It is concluded that there is no reason to doubt the therapeutic effect of sex reassignment surgery and that more attention ought to be paid to psychosocial guidance in addition to medical guidance.

Exogenous estrogen effect on lipid /lipoprotein cholesterol in transsexual males

It is concluded that exogenous estrogens administered to transsexual males results in a female pattern of lipid/lipoprotein cholesterol and SHBG concentration, and the decreased total cholesterol/HDL ratio may imply a lower atherogenic potential and a lessened cardiovascular risk in males who take estrogens.


The data suggest that the lowest possible oestrogen dose and lifelong follow-up of hormone‐treated male‐to‐female transsexuals is essential.

Cerebrovascular occlusion in a transsexual man taking mestranol.

A case in which a previously healthy man who was using an oral contraceptive drug developed middle cerebral artery occlusion appears to have been related to estrogen administration, and the occurrence of persistent severe headaches in patients using estrogenic hormones may be a clue to impending cerebrovascular occlusions.