Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Petroleum Energy Futures in Africa

  title={Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Petroleum Energy Futures in Africa},
  author={Robert Bailis and Majid Ezzati and Daniel M. Kammen},
  pages={103 - 98}
We analyzed the mortality impacts and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced by household energy use in Africa. Under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, household indoor air pollution will cause an estimated 9.8 million premature deaths by the year 2030. Gradual and rapid transitions to charcoal would delay 1.0 million and 2.8 million deaths, respectively; similar transitions to petroleum fuels would delay 1.3 million and 3.7 million deaths. Cumulative BAU GHG emissions will be 6.7 billion… 
Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy Futures in Africa
� � Bioenergy plays a major role in the energy mix in Africa today, but both the human health and environmental impacts associated with reliance on this fuel structure are significant. This article
Air Pollution and Climate Forcing of the Charcoal Industry in Africa.
An inventory of current (2014) and future (2030) emissions from the charcoal supply chain in Africa that is implemented in the GEOS-Chem model to quantify the contribution of charcoal to surface concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone and direct radiative forcing due to aerosols and ozone.
Impact of economic growth, nonrenewable and renewable energy consumption, and urbanization on carbon emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • I. Hanif
  • Economics, Medicine
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • 2018
The findings reveal that the use of renewable energy alternatives improves air quality by controlling carbon emissions and lowering the direct interaction of households with toxic gases, and helps the economies to achieve sustainable development targets.
Potential environmental impacts of small-scale renewable energy technologies in East Africa: A systematic review of the evidence
Abstract This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the potential impacts of Small-scale Renewable Energy Technologies (SRETs) in reducing deforestation, forest degradation and
Urban and rural energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in Asia
The process of urbanization has been shown to be important for economic development, environmental impacts and human wellbeing, particularly in developing countries. In this paper we compare
Modeling climate change mitigation from alternative methods of charcoal production in Kenya
Abstract Current carbon accounting methodologies do not accommodate activities that involve emissions reductions from both land-use change and energy production. This paper analyzes the climate
Sustainable bioenergy development in Africa: issues, challenges, and the way forward
Abstract Energy has played an extremely important role in the technological and economic progress of all nations. The burning of harvested organic matter (biomass) remains the primary energy source
Deforestation and biomass fuel dynamics in Uganda
Abstract Forests are, and will remain for decades to come, a critical source of domestic energy for households in East Africa. Deforestation threatens to alter the supply of biomass available to
Infant mortality rates and nonrenewable energy consumption in Asia and the Pacific: The mediating role of carbon emissions
This study aligns with the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals- 3 which aim to “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”. It contributes to the nascent
Bioenergy and Biospheric Carbon
Land use change is responsible for about 15% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Major efforts are underway to reduce deforestation and expansion of agriculture for food production which are


Greenhouse gas implications of household energy technology in Kenya.
The disparity between theGHG emissions from charcoal and firewood increased significantly, with non-CO2 GHG emissions factors (g of C/kg of fuel burned) for charcoal production and consumption 6-13 times higher than emissions from woodstoves.
This report presents a database containing a systematic set of measurements of the CO2, CO, CH4, TNMOC, N2O, SO2, NO2, and TSP emissions from the most common combustion devices in the world,
Comparison of Emissions and Residential Exposure from Traditional and Improved Cookstoves in Kenya
Suspended particulate matter and carbon emissions from the combustion of biomass, in addition to their environmental consequences, have been causally associated with the incidence of respiratory and
Global atmospheric impacts of residential fuels
The impacts of increased pollutant concentration may affect the behavior of the Earth-atmosphere system. In particular, large-scale changes in atmospheric composition are associated with changes in
In Praise of Petroleum?
There remain serious cost constraints and implications for local employment, but there are no realistic resource or greenhouse constraints to keep us from targeting the needs of the poorest with LPG in places where renewable technologies are not yet appropriate or sustainable.
Poverty and energy in Africa--A brief review
Abstract The objective of this paper is to provide a summary overview of the African energy sector and briefly examine the nexus of poverty and energy in the region. While the paper uses
Maternal Exposure to Biomass Smoke and Reduced Birth Weight in Zimbabwe
Household use of high pollution cooking fuels may cause reduced birth weight, and the relationship needs to be further investigated using more direct measures of smoke exposure and birth weight and accounting for environmental tobacco smoke.
Comparative quantification of health risks. Global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Volume 1.
This book provides a comprehensive assessment of the scientific evidence on prevalence and hazards, and the resulting health effects, of a range of exposures that are known to be hazardous to human health, including childhood and maternal undernutrition, nutritional and physiological risk factors for adult health, addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, and risks in the physical environments of households and communities.
Climate change 2001 : the scientific basis
Summary for policymakers Technical summary 1. The climate system - an overview 2. Observed climate variability and change 3. The carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2 4. Atmospheric chemistry and
Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease
Substantial proportions of global disease burden are attributable to these major risks, to an extent greater than previously estimated.