Mortality among male cigar and cigarette smokers in the USA

@article{Rodu2021MortalityAM,
  title={Mortality among male cigar and cigarette smokers in the USA},
  author={Brad Rodu and Nantaporn Plurphanswat},
  journal={Harm Reduction Journal},
  year={2021},
  volume={18}
}
Background Cigars and cigarettes are both smoked, but much less is known about the former’s long-term health effects, due to its low prevalence and infrequent collection of cigar information in national surveys. Purpose We conducted a follow-up mortality study of cigar-smoking men age 40–79 years in National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). Methods We used pooled NHIS files linked to the National Death Index to obtain follow-up from year of interview to year of death or December 31, 2015. We… 
1 Citations
Updated Understanding of the Causes of Cancer, and a New Theoretical Perspective of Combinational Cancer Therapies, a Hypothesis.
TLDR
The aim is to suggest a model therapeutic protocol that incorporates the patient's genome, metabolism, and immune system status; stage of tumor development; and comorbidity(ies), if any, which is most likely to aid prevention.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 36 REFERENCES
Mortality among male smokers and smokeless tobacco users in the USA
TLDR
This is the first simultaneous mortality follow-up study of older American male smokers and ST users and finds that younger users did not have excess mortality from any smoking-related diseases, but younger users had an elevation in deaths from other causes.
Cigar smoking in men and risk of death from tobacco-related cancers.
TLDR
Results from this large prospective study support a strong association between cigar smoking and mortality from several types of cancer.
Smoking and mortality--beyond established causes.
TLDR
A substantial portion of the excess mortality among current smokers between 2000 and 2011 was due to associations with diseases that have not been formally established as caused by smoking, and these associations should be investigated further.
Cigarette Smoking and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Adult Mortality in the United States
TLDR
It is demonstrated that smoking-attributable mortality must remain a top population health priority in the United States and makes several contributions to further underscore the human costs of this tragedy that has ravaged American society for more than a century.
Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality
TLDR
A systematic review of published studies on current cigar smoking and all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks to inform potential regulatory approaches and future research that would strengthen the body of evidence found cigar smoking carries many of the same health risks as cigarette smoking.
Association of Cigarette, Cigar, and Pipe Use With Mortality Risk in the US Population
TLDR
This study provides further evidence that exclusive use of cigar, pipes, and cigarettes each confers significant mortality risks and indicates that never tobacco users have higher all-cause mortality risks than current and former tobacco users.
US Adult Cigar Smoking Patterns, Purchasing Behaviors, and Reasons for Use According to Cigar Type: Findings From the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013–2014
TLDR
User characteristics, cigar smoking patterns, and dual smoking with cigarettes varied by cigar type highlighting the importance of adequately describing the cigar type studied and, where appropriate, differentiating results by cigars type.
Little Filtered Cigar, Cigarillo, and Premium Cigar Smoking Among Adults — United States, 2012–2013
TLDR
Characterizing cigar smokers by the usual type of cigar smoked using the following categories can help to inform public health interventions to reduce the burden of adverse health effects caused by cigar smoking in the United States, including regulation.
Lung cancer risk with cigar and pipe use.
TLDR
There were significant trends of increased risk of lung cancer with years of cigar and pipe use and with number of cigars and pipes smoked per day and differences in risk levels between cigar- only, pipe-only, mixed, and cigarette-only smokers are strongly related to inhalation practices.
...
1
2
3
4
...