Morphometric, Behavioral, and Genomic Evidence for a New Orangutan Species

@article{Nater2017MorphometricBA,
  title={Morphometric, Behavioral, and Genomic Evidence for a New Orangutan Species},
  author={Alexander Nater and Maja Patricia Mattle-Greminger and Anton Nurcahyo and Matthew G. Nowak and Marc de Manuel and Tariq Desai and Colin P. Groves and Marc Pybus and Tugce Bilgin Sonay and Christian Roos and Adriano R. Lameira and Serge A. Wich and James A. Askew and Marina Davila-Ross and Gabriella Fredriksson and Guillem de Valles and Ferr{\'a}n Casals and Javier Prado-Martinez and Beno{\^i}t Goossens and Ernst J. Verschoor and Kristin Warren and Ian Singleton and David Alexander Marques and Joko Pamungkas and Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah and Puji Rianti and Augustine Tuuga and Ivo Glynne Gut and Marta Gut and Pablo Orozco-terWengel and Carel P. van Schaik and Jaume Bertranpetit and Maria O. Anisimova and Aylwyn Scally and Tom{\`a}s Marqu{\`e}s-Bonet and Erik Meijaard and Michael Kr{\"u}tzen},
  journal={Current Biology},
  year={2017},
  volume={27},
  pages={3487-3498.e10}
}

Figures from this paper

Phylogeographic evidence for two species of muriqui (genus Brachyteles)

Phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses of the sequence dataset robustly support two reciprocally monophyletic groups corresponding to northern and southern muriquis separated by an average 12.7% genetic distance.

Look in the trees: Hylobatids as evolutionary models for extinct hominins

The following features make hylobatids strong analogs for extinct hominins: taxonomic diversity, the timing of diversification, hybridization between species, small body size, and reduced sexual dimorphism.

Evidence for increased hominid diversity in the Early to Middle Pleistocene of Indonesia

Results confirm the presence of Meganthropus as a Pleistocene Indonesian hominid distinct from Pongo, Gigantopithecus and Homo, and reveal that Dubois’s H. erectus paratype molars from 1891 are not hominin (human lineage), but instead are more likely to belong to Meganthrops.

Patterns of sexual variation in hominoid mandibular morphology: a framework for interpreting the hominin fossil record

This work describes the phenotypical expression of sexual dimorphism in the mandible of six extant hominoid species, including humans, using geometric morphometrics and finds significant differences in how sexualDimorphism is expressed phenotypically even amongst closely related species with small divergence times.

Evidence of cryptic lineages within a small South American crocodilian: the Schneider’s dwarf caiman Paleosuchus trigonatus (Alligatoridae: Caimaninae)

Phylogenetic reconstructions of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and single locus species discovery methods revealed the existence of two well-supported lineages within P. trigonatus—an Amazonian and Guianan lineage and these lineages are already under anthropogenic threat and, therefore, are conservation dependent.

Divergence and introgression in small apes, the genus Hylobates, revealed by reduced representation sequencing

To uncover the divergence history and the contributions of hybridisation and introgression to the evolution of Hylobates, random amplicon sequencing-direct (GRAS-Di) analysis was employed to genotype 47 gibbons, representing eight species from three genera, and supported a divergence pattern beginning approximately 4.3 million years ago.

A new species of squirrel (Sciuridae: Callosciurus) from an isolated island off the Indochina Peninsula in southern Vietnam

A new species of squirrel from Hon Khoai Island, located off the coast of southern Vietnam is described and its phylogenetic position in the genus Callosciurus is discussed, suggesting that it evolved from C. caniceps or an ancestor in common with C.Caniceps during the Pliocene.

New genus of extinct Holocene gibbon associated with humans in Imperial China

A new, globally extinct genus and species of gibbon, Junzi imperialis, described from a partial cranium and mandible from a ~2200- to 2300-year-old tomb from Shaanxi, China, is reported.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 146 REFERENCES

Two New Species of Mouse Lemurs (Cheirogaleidae: Microcebus) from Eastern Madagascar

A recent genetic analysis of mtDNA and nDNA sequence data in Malagasy mouse lemurs revealed the existence of several novel mtDNA clades based on new field sampling, and confirmed their evolutionary divergence from other mouse lemur clades, formally describing them as new species.

Call diversity of wild male orangutans: a phylogenetic approach

The shortest trees and multivariate analyses provide some support for a closer relationship between Sumatran and specific Borneo demes than between particular Bornean demes themselves, indicating that conservation management should be based on orangutans from different populations rather than on just the two island‐specific groups.

Taxonomy of the Bornean Slow Loris, With New Species Nycticebus kayan (Primates, Lorisidae)

Differing facemask patterns, particularly influenced by the amount of white on the face, significantly clustered together by geographic regions, separated by notable geographic boundaries support the recognition of four species of Bornean lorises.

Sex-biased dispersal and volcanic activities shaped phylogeographic patterns of extant Orangutans (genus: Pongo).

It is demonstrated that a strong sex bias in dispersal can lead to conflicting patterns in uniparentally inherited markers even at a genus-wide scale, highlighting the need for a combined usage of maternally and paternally inherited marker systems in phylogenetic studies.

Description of a new species of Hoolock gibbon (Primates: Hylobatidae) based on integrative taxonomy

A species of Hoolock gibbon is described from eastern Myanmar and southwestern China that is new to science and should be categorized as Endangered under IUCN criteria, focusing attention on the need for improved conservation of small apes.

New Oligocene primate from Saudi Arabia and the divergence of apes and Old World monkeys

The partial cranium of a new medium-sized fossil catarrhine, Saadanius hijazensis, is described and it is inferred that the hominoid–cercopithecoid split happened later, between 29–28 and 24 Myr ago.

Chimpanzee genomic diversity reveals ancient admixture with bonobos

It is found that chimpanzee population substructure makes genetic information a good predictor of geographic origin at country and regional scales and also provides population-specific genetic markers that may be valuable for conservation efforts.

Nuclear versus mitochondrial DNA: evidence for hybridization in colobine monkeys

This study provides the most comprehensive view on colobine evolution to date and emphasizes that analyses of various molecular markers, such as mobile elements and sequence data from multiple loci, are crucial to better understand evolutionary relationships and to trace hybridization events.

Effects of Pleistocene glaciations and rivers on the population structure of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)

Phylogenetic reconstructions based on mtDNA sequences indicate an unexpectedly recent common ancestor of Bornean orangutans 176 ka (95% highest posterior density, 72–322 ka), pointing to a Pleistocene refugium.

Orangutans : geographic variation in behavioral ecology and conservation

Geographic variation in orangutan behavior and biology: its functional interpretation and its mechanistic basis is studied.
...