Morphology and immunology of the human palatine tonsil

  title={Morphology and immunology of the human palatine tonsil},
  author={Heike Nave and Andreas Gebert and Reinhard Pabst},
  journal={Anatomy and Embryology},
At the surface of the respiratory and digestive organs the organism first comes into contact nasally and orally with various foreign agents and substances in the air and in food. The palatine tonsils are located at the centre of this strategic region. Immunological processes, both humoral and cellular, are initiated in the different specialised compartments of the palatine tonsils, such as the crypt epithelium, lymphoid follicles and extrafollicular region. Each compartment has a typical… 

Ultrastructure of the human palatine tonsil and its functional significance.

The complex ultrastructure of the human palatine tonsil provides a microenvironment necessary for antigen uptake, antigen processing and immune response.

The microanatomy of the palatine tonsils of the buffalo (Bos bubalus).

Histology, Immunohistochemistry and Ultrastructure of the Equine Palatine Tonsil

The immunohistological and ultrastructural characteristics of the equine palatine tonsil are similar to those of humans but differ from those of the lingual tonsil and are consistent with a role as an effector and inductor immunological organ.

Histological characterization of the lingual tonsils of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

A sustained immunological role of the lingual tonsils throughout the life of the one-humped camel is indicated, which increases the surface area exposed to antigen.

Microarchitecture of the Palatine Tonsil in Sheep (Ovis aries)

The palatine tonsil was clearly demarcated from the surrounding structures by a distinct connective tissue capsule and one septa dividing the tonsil into two lobes, and the crypt epithelium covered the regions of lymphoid follicles became lymphoepithelium.

Functional characterization of T-cells from palatine tonsils in patients with chronic tonsillitis

Tonsillar T-cells recurrently featured a dampened response to T-cell receptor stimulation at the level of receptor proximal signaling steps compared to peripheral T- cells, consistent with the concept that tonsillarT-cells react to infections by eliciting specific immunological responses in chronic versus acute settings of inflammation.

Determination of in vivo protein synthesis in human palatine tonsil.

The in vivo protein synthesis rate in human tonsils was higher compared with the circulating immune cells, suggesting that this high metabolic rate may reflect the permanent immunological activity present in humantonsils, although cell phenotypes and activity markers do not explain the differences.

Lymphadenoid Tissues in the Upper Airway

The current cumulative evidence on the histological and pathological features of human lymphadenoid tissues are summarized, their fundamental immunological functions are delineated, and insights into various interactions involved in the initiation of immune responses are provided to enable a better conceptual framework on the pathophysiology of pediatric OSA.

The Microanatomy of the Palatine Tonsils of the One‐Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

The unique arrangement of palatine tonsils in separate units with individual crypts results in a very large surface exposed to antigen and indicates a significant immunological role of palanatomy of the one‐humped camel.



Immune systems of human nasopharyngeal and palatine tonsils: histomorphometry of lymphoid components and quantification of immunoglobulin-producing cells in health and disease.

A difference between the two organs in the response pattern of the Ig-producing cells, especially in the reticular epithelium, might be influenced by a contribution of the secretory immune system to the surface protection of the adenoids.

The specialised structure of crypt epithelium in the human palatine tonsil and its functional significance.

  • M. Perry
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of anatomy
  • 1994
The reticulated epithelium lining the tonsillar crypts represents a specialised compartment, important in the immunological functions of the tonsil as a whole, and is proposed to provide a favourable environment for the intimate contact between the effector cells of immune responses.

Specialization of tonsils as analyzers of the human immune system.

  • T. Karchev
  • Medicine
    Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum
  • 1988
An attempt at characterizing tonsils as analyzers of the immune system is made, and it is suggested that adequate signals for these analyzers are high-molecular substances penetrating orally and nasally.

M-cells in the epithelium of the nasopharyngeal tonsil.

Electron-microscope investigation on the epithelium was carried out in 23 nasopharyngeal tonsils and the pinocytary and secretory activity of the M-cells that is being linked with the immunogenesis of the nasoph throat tonsil were discussed.

Scanning and transmission electron microscopy on the epithelium of human palatine tonsils

  • A. Howie
  • Medicine
    The Journal of pathology
  • 1980
The epithelium lining the tonsillar crypts was shown to be stratified squamous in type, with an extensive system of channels occupying nearly the full thickness of the epithelia.

M cells in the rabbit palatine tonsil: the distribution, spatial arrangement and membrane subdomains as defined by confocal lectin histochemistry

The tonsillar M cells closely resemble the M cells of the small and large intestines in their spatial structure, and likewise maintain an intraepithelial compartment for the interaction of lymphocytes, macrophages and antigens.

Structure and function of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT).

The surface epithelium of the respiratory tract, including the lymphoepit Helium of BALT, is described, with emphasis on infiltrated nonepithelial cells (lymphocytes, macrophages).

Differentiation of crypt epithelium in human palatine tonsils: the microenvironment of crypt epithelium as a lymphoepithelial organ.

Observations suggest that the cell-shape transformation occurs when the epithelial cells are in close contact with the infiltrating lymphocytes, and that this transformation is accompanied by a change in keratin phenotype.

The B-cell development in tonsillar lymphoid follicles.

  • P. Brandtzaeg
  • Biology, Medicine
    Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum
  • 1996
Mucosal immunity can be induced in the airways by nasal immunization, and the level of nasopharyngeal and salivary secretory IgA is decreased after adenotonsillectomy.

Association between keratin staining patterns and the structural and functional aspects of palatine tonsil epithelium

  • J. ReibelC. SØRensen
  • Medicine
    APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • 1991
The results suggest that the massive lymphocytic traffic in the reticulated crypt epithelium and the overall distinct immune environment are responsible for the unique keratin staining pattern observed.