Morphology and histology of chimpanzee primary visual striate cortex indicate that brain reorganization predated brain expansion in early hominid evolution.

@article{Holloway2003MorphologyAH,
  title={Morphology and histology of chimpanzee primary visual striate cortex indicate that brain reorganization predated brain expansion in early hominid evolution.},
  author={Ralph L. Holloway, and Douglas C. Broadfield and Michael Sheng-tien Yuan},
  journal={The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology},
  year={2003},
  volume={273 1},
  pages={
          594-602
        }
}
  • R. Holloway,, D. Broadfield, M. Yuan
  • Published 1 July 2003
  • Biology, Psychology
  • The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology
Human brain evolution is characterized by an overall increase in brain size, cerebral reorganization, and cerebral lateralization. It is generally understood when brain enlargement occurred during human evolution. However, issues concerning cerebral reorganization and hemispheric lateralization are more difficult to determine from brain endocasts, and they are topics of considerable debate. One region of the cerebral cortex that may represent the earliest evidence for brain reorganization is… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Hominoid visual brain structure volumes and the position of the lunate sulcus.
Evidence for independent brain and neurocranial reorganization during hominin evolution
TLDR
It is shown that the human brain–braincase relationships are unique compared to chimpanzees and that structural rearrangements in the brain and in thebraincase emerged independently during human evolution and that evolutionary changes in brain and neurocranial structures are largely independent of each other.
Evolving Human Brains: Paleoneurology and the Fate of Middle Pleistocene
TLDR
A proper evaluation of cognitive differences must take into account not only the cerebral components, but also the associated mechanisms underlying technological extension, as in the case of Homo erectus and H. neanderthalensis.
Comparative cytoarchitectural analyses of striate and extrastriate areas in hominoids.
TLDR
It is suggested that interspecific variability in the cytoarchitectural organization of visual system structures can arise independently of global brain and body size scaling relationships.
The Human Brain Evolving: A Personal Retrospective
TLDR
Exactly how this melange of organs evolved will require many more paleontological discoveries with relatively intact crania, an unraveling of the genetic bases for both brain structures and their relationship to behaviors, and a far more complete picture of how the brain varies between male and female and among different populations throughout the world.
Cortical cell and neuron density estimates in one chimpanzee hemisphere
TLDR
The numbers of cells and neurons for 742 discrete locations across the neocortex in a chimpanzee are presented, using isotropic fractionation and flow fractionation methods for cell and neuron counts, to suggest regions of the cortex have different specializations.
A Dual Comparative Approach: Integrating Lines of Evidence from Human Evolutionary Neuroanatomy and Neurodevelopmental Disorders
TLDR
These lines of evidence are explored and their significance for understanding functional variation between species as well as within neuropathological variation in the human brain are explored.
Identification of in vivo Sulci on the External Surface of Eight Adult Chimpanzee Brains: Implications for Interpreting Early Hominin Endocasts
TLDR
These labeled in vivo chimpanzee brains are provided to provide a larger number of examples for identifying sulci on hominin endocasts than hitherto available and suggest that changes in two gyri that bridge between the parietal and occipital lobes may have contributed to cortical reorganization in early hominins.
Evolution of the modern human brain.
The size of scalable brain components in the human evolutionary lineage: with a comment on the paradox of Homo floresiensis.
  • G. ConroyR. J. Smith
  • Biology
    Homo : internationale Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen
  • 2007
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 58 REFERENCES
Variability of Broca's area homologue in African great apes: implications for language evolution.
TLDR
It is concluded that gross morphologic patterns do not offer substantive landmarks for the measurement of Brodmann's area 44 in great apes, and whether or not Broca's area homologue of great apes exhibits humanlike asymmetry can only be resolved through further analyses of microstructural components.
Hadar AL 162-28 endocast as evidence that brain enlargement preceded cortical reorganization in hominid evolution
TLDR
Observations regarding cranial capacity, the relationship between endocast and skull, sulcai pattern, brain shape and cranial venous sinuses, appear to be consistent with an ape-like external cortical morphology in Hadar early hominids and there is no evidence for expansion or reorganization of parietal/occipital regions.
Cerebral brain endocast pattern of Australopithecus afarensis hominid
TLDR
A preliminary description of that endocast appears that despite its smallish pongid-sized brain, some degree of cerebral organization had occurred almost 3–4 Myr ago towards a more human pattern, which would mean that brain size increase may well have followed locomotion, but that brain organization may have occurred early in hominid evolution.
Humans and great apes share a large frontal cortex
TLDR
It is suggested that the special cognitive abilities attributed to a frontal advantage may be due to differences in individual cortical areas and to a richer interconnectivity, none of which required an increase in the overall relative size of the frontal lobe during hominid evolution.
A neuronal morphologic type unique to humans and great apes.
TLDR
The existence and distribution of an unusual type of projection neuron, a large, spindle-shaped cell, in layer Vb of the anterior cingulate cortex of pongids and hominids is reported, which suggests some of the differential neuronal susceptibility that occurs in the human brain in the course of age-related dementing illnesses may have appeared only recently during primate evolution.
Asymmetry of chimpanzee planum temporale: humanlike pattern of Wernicke's brain language area homolog.
TLDR
The anatomic pattern and left hemisphere size predominance of the planum temporale, a language area of the human brain, are also present in chimpanzees, indicating that anatomic hemispheric asymmetry of this cerebrocortical site is clearly not unique to humans, as currently thought.
Distinctive compartmental organization of human primary visual cortex.
  • T. PreussH. QiJ. Kaas
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1999
TLDR
Apes and humans lacked the dense band of cytochrome oxidase staining in layer 4A that marks the stratum of P-geniculate afferents in monkeys, and human 4A contained a large amount of M-like tissue distributed in a complex, mesh-like pattern rather than in simple vertical arrays as in other anthropoid primates.
Mapping Continued Brain Growth and Gray Matter Density Reduction in Dorsal Frontal Cortex: Inverse Relationships during Postadolescent Brain Maturation
TLDR
The results suggest that progressive cellular maturational events may play as prominent a role during the postadolescent years as regressive events, such as synaptic pruning, in determining the ultimate density of mature frontal lobe cortical gray matter.
...
...