Morphology and Homology of the Chiropteran Calcar, with Comments on the Phylogenetic Relationships of Archaeopteropus

  title={Morphology and Homology of the Chiropteran Calcar, with Comments on the Phylogenetic Relationships of Archaeopteropus},
  author={William A. Schutt and Nancy B. Simmons},
  journal={Journal of Mammalian Evolution},
Most researchers have considered the calcar to be a unique and homologous structure within Chiroptera (e.g., the presence of this structure and its associated musculature has been cited as a synapomorphy supporting bat monophyly). However, we report that significant morphological variation exists between Microchiroptera and Megachiroptera. In microchiropterans, a calcified or cartilaginous element articulates directly with the calcaneal tuberosity of the ankle and projects into the uropatagium… 

Relationships of Endemic African Mammals and Their Fossil Relatives Based on Morphological and Molecular Evidence

Analyses of anatomical and DNA sequence data run on a parallel supercomputer that include fossil taxa support the inclusion of tenrecs and golden moles in the Afrotheria, an endemic African clade of placental mammals, and support the position of AfroTheria as well-nested, not basal, within Placentalia.

Fossil Evidence and the Origin of Bats

A new phylogenetic analysis indicates that several early fossil bats are consecutive sister taxa to the extant crown group (including megabats), and suggests a single origin for the order, at least by the late Paleocene.

Were mammals originally venomous

It is speculated that the os calcaris, the cornu calcari, and its associated venom gland might have served the function of a defensive structure dur− ing the “dark ages” of mammalian history, when dinosaurs ruled the Earth.

Sesamoids and Morphological Variation: a Hypothesis on the Origin of Rod-like Skeletal Elements in Aerial Mammals

  • L. I. Amador
  • Biology, Geography
    Journal of Mammalian Evolution
  • 2021
This review gathers information regarding anatomy, evolution, and development of rod-like skeletal elements in extant gliding and flying mammals and proposes a working hypothesis on the origin of these structures, which might constitute an example of pre-existing traits that acquire novel functions through relatively little developmental plasticity.


Four short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Carolliinae), were subjected to walking trials on medium-grained sand with moisture levels of 12–21%.

Conflict and congruence in a combined DNA–morphology analysis of megachiropteran bat relationships (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae)

Although morphology alone recovered trees different and to some extent incompatible with those from previous molecular analyses, the combination of the two sources of evidence easily accommodated the morphological and molecular signals, yielding a resolved and relatively well‐supported phylogeny of Megachiroptera in reasonable agreement with the current morphology‐based taxonomy of the group.

A phylogeny of megachiropteran bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) based on direct optimization analysis of one nuclear and four mitochondrial genes

The results indicate that, within Megachiroptera, nectarivory and cave‐dwelling originated several times, but echolocation evolved only once, and that Melonycteris is the sister group of the clade containing all the other genera.

Morphology and Postnatal Development of Lower Hindlimbs in Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae): A Comparative Study

The postnatal development and bone morphology of hindlimbs of the nimble walker vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, is described in detail, and adult characters with the insectivorous Molossus molossus (erratic walker) and the frugivorous Artibeus lituratus (non‐walker) are compared.

New gliding mammaliaforms from the Jurassic

Two new eleutherodonts from the Late Jurassic period have skin membranes and skeletal features that are adapted for gliding, and show an evolutionary experimentation similar to the iterative evolutions of gliders within arboreal groups of marsupial and placental mammals.

Anatomical diversification of a skeletal novelty in bat feet

The results demonstrate that novel skeletal additions can become integrated into vertebrate body plans and subsequently evolve into a variety of forms, potentially impacting clade diversification by expanding the available morphological space into which organisms can evolve.



Phylogeny, Molecules Versus Morphology, and Rates of Character Evolution Among Fruitbats (Chiroptera: Megachiroptera)

A phylogenetic framework was constructed on the basis of morphological data and DNA hybridisation data and shows little resolution, whereas employing a criterion of strong support produced a framework resolving several additional nodes, and one implication is that characteristic macroglossine features have evolved independently on several occasions.

On the Monophyly of Bats

The results show that the haemoglobin sequence of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, and its place in the phylogeny of carnivores is similar to that of other carnivores, which means that the panda genome is likely to be related to those of other animals with similar immune systems.

Phenetic relationships among bats of the genus Myotis

A numerical taxonomic analysis of the species of the chiropteran genus Myotis revealed the existence of three major phenetic groupings, which may correspond to three feeding-foraging modalities.

Classification of mammals : above the species level

Malcolm C. McKenna and Susan K. McKenna inherited the project from Simpson and, with Bell, has constructed a completely updated hierarchical system that reflects the genealogy of Mammalia.

II. The myology of the cheiroptera

  • A. Macalister
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London
  • 1872
This paper is a record of the structural details of nineteen species of Bats, and for purposes of comparison the author has appended a description of the muscles of the Plying Squirrel (Pteromys) and

The Myology of the Limbs of Pteropus.

  • Humphry
  • Biology
    Journal of anatomy and physiology
  • 1869
The peculiar features of interest are the modifications by which the muscles of the fore limb are adapted for flying, leading us to observe by what slight deviations from the ordinary mammalian type the end has been attained.

Comments on Flight and the Evolution of Bats

By virtue of their anatomical adaptations for flight, bats have largely abandoned their terrestrial (i.e., quadrupedal) locomotory abilities and no other volant animal has made such a complete and drastic modification in its locomOTory style.

The families and genera of bats

It was shown, for example, that in the absence of the barring factor, the black and yellow factors combine to produce three color varieties,namely pure black, if the black factor is in excess; sooty

Ecological Morphology and Flight in Bats (Mammalia; Chiroptera): Wing Adaptations, Flight Performance, Foraging Strategy and Echolocation

Bat wing morphology is considered in relation to flight performance and flight behaviour to clarify the functional basis for eco-morphological correlations in flying animals, and adaptive trends in wing adaptations are predictably and closely paralleled by echolocation call structure.

A new species of Thyroptera Spix (Mammalia : Chiroptera : Thyropteridae) from the Amazon Basin of northeastern Perú

Les caracteres morphologiques qui separent la nouvelle espece des especes de Thyroptera actuellement reconnues sont presentes and les caractseres qui etaient utilises pour caracteriser les especeds de ce genre sont discutes and evalues.