Morphology and Homology of the Chiropteran Calcar, with Comments on the Phylogenetic Relationships of Archaeopteropus

@article{Schutt2004MorphologyAH,
  title={Morphology and Homology of the Chiropteran Calcar, with Comments on the Phylogenetic Relationships of Archaeopteropus},
  author={William A. Schutt and Nancy B. Simmons},
  journal={Journal of Mammalian Evolution},
  year={2004},
  volume={5},
  pages={1-32}
}
Most researchers have considered the calcar to be a unique and homologous structure within Chiroptera (e.g., the presence of this structure and its associated musculature has been cited as a synapomorphy supporting bat monophyly). However, we report that significant morphological variation exists between Microchiroptera and Megachiroptera. In microchiropterans, a calcified or cartilaginous element articulates directly with the calcaneal tuberosity of the ankle and projects into the uropatagium… 

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