• Corpus ID: 23800933

Morphological diversity of sperm: A mini review

  title={Morphological diversity of sperm: A mini review},
  author={Seppan Prakash and Elumalai Prithiviraj and Sekar Suresh and Nagella Venkata Lakshmi and Mohanraj Karthik Ganesh and Murugesan Anuradha and Lakshmanan Ganesh and Premavathy Dinesh},
  journal={Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine},
  pages={239 - 242}
Sperms are highly specialized cells for delivering DNA from male to the ovum. Incredibly, wide degree of diversity in sperm morphology in their basic structures i.e. head, middle piece and tail is found across species. Differences in terms of overall size of the sperm, shape and number of sperm produced are also incredible. One of the key for this variations or diversity in sperm may be associated with female reproductive tract, sperm competition, testicular size and sperm size and number… 

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The most recent study by Lüpold et al.1 reveals that the evolution of longer sperm is driven by the female seminal receptacle and mating frequency in Drosophila, which, in turn, increases the benefits to females.

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This study analyses the histological and cellular morphology of the testis and sperm development in the male Daphnia magna Straus 1820 to describe the structure of developing and mature spermatozoa.

Review: Sperm: Comparative morphology and function related to altered reproductive strategies and fertility in mammals

This synthesis provides a concise review of comparative anatomy and physiology of mammalian sperm structure and how inevitable changes regulate fertility.

Progress in Research on Sperm DNA Fragmentation

This review aimed to outline the research status of SDF mechanism and detection technology-related issues, as well as the effect of increased SDF rate, aiming to provide a basis for clinical male infertility diagnosis and treatment.

Morphological Characteristics of the Sperm of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) during the Reproductive Season

The morphological characteristics of different sperm cells in the peregrine falcon during the reproductive season were analysed and the main sperm defects found in semen were classified.

Etiologies of sperm oxidative stress

Spermatozoa need small amounts of ROS to acquire the ability of nuclear maturation regulation and condensation to fertilize the oocyte, indicating that oxidative stress is one of the main cause of DNA damage in the germ cells, then there should be good reason for antioxidant therapy in these conditions.

Development of a Single-Piece Sperm Counting Chamber (SSCC) for Aquatic Species

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Characterization of Human Spermatic Subpopulations by ConA-Binding Sites and Tyrosine Phosphorylation during in vitro Capacitation and Acrosome Reaction

Novel insights are provided regarding spermatozoa subpopulations based on essential physiological events like capacitation and acrosome reaction, which could have potential implications in the improvement of spermatozosa selection techniques.

Does myoinositol supplement improve sperm parameters and DNA integrity in patients with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia after the freezing–thawing process?

Results showed that MYO could be a good supplement for sperm freezing to reduce the detrimental effects of freezing process especially on DNA integrity, which is an important factor in the success of ART, in OAT suffered patients.



How the sperm lost its tail: the evolution of aflagellate sperm

  • E. H. Morrow
  • Biology
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 2004
Weak evidence is provided suggesting that the evolution of aflagellate sperm could be linked to the removal of selective pressures generated by sperm competition, which occurs when the sperm of two or more males compete to fertilize a female's ova.

Mammalian sperm morphometry

  • M. Gage
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1998
This comparative study attempts to address some fundamental questions of the evolution of mammalian sperm morphometry to explore relationships between the morphometric dimensions of the three essential spermatozoal components: head, mid–piece and flagellum.


It is suggested that future models of sperm‐size evolution consider not only the role of sperm competition, but also how female control and manipulation of ejaculates after insemination selects for different sperm morphologies.

Sperm Competition in Fishes: The Evolution of Testis Size and Ejaculate Characteristics

It is found that both the gonadosomatic index and sperm numbers increase with intensity of sperm competition across species but that sperm length decreases, which does not fit predictions of current sperm competition theory.

Female reproductive biology and the coevolution of ejaculate characteristics in fish

It is found that sperm numbers increase with ova numbers among externally fertilizing species, fitting the predictions of theoretical models, however, sperm numbers are apparently not related to ovum size.

Coevolution between male ejaculates and female reproductive biology in eutherian mammals

  • M. GomendioE. Roldan
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1993
It is argued that differences in female reproductive biology may also have influenced the evolution of sperm numbers as well as several other sperm traits, suggesting that variation in sperm fertile lifespan may be related to differences in sperm size.

Linking sperm length and velocity: the importance of intramale variation

It is shown that sperm length and velocity are highly correlated in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, but importantly it is reported that failure to account for within-male variation in these sperm traits can obscure this relationship.

Sperm size and sperm competition in birds

It is concluded that sperm competition influences sperm size in birds and detailed study of this interaction will provide a new dimension to the study of avian mating systems.

Sperm competition: linking form to function

It is shown that increased sperm length is unlikely to be driven by selection for increased swimming speed, and that the relative lengths of a sperm's constituent parts, rather than their absolute lengths, are likely to be the target of selection.

Extra-pair paternity, sperm competition and the evolution of testis size in birds

It is demonstrated that testis mass is related positively to the level of extra-pair paternity, after controlling for body size and phylogeny, and it is argued that selection has favoured increased testismass in situations of more intense sperm competition in order to retaliate against copulations by rival males.