Chaetomium is a fungus species that inhabits different cellulose substrates. Some species of this genus destroy books, textile, and wood. This genus is of particular interest due to its antagonistic and enzyme peculiarities. Studies on morphological and cultural features of Chaetomium species have both theoretical and practical output. Growth rates and development of C. globosum, C. funicola, C. elatum, and C. spirale were studied under different temperatures (17–20°C, 25°C, 27°C, 30°C, and 33–35°C) and carbon source media (glucose, saccharose, mannite, lactose, amylum, and cellulose). The optimal growth temperature was 25–27°C for all the studied species, while the temperature range of 33–35°C inhibited the colonies’ growth. Growth dynamics and colony shape and morphology, as well as development of overhead mycelium and ascocarps, varied greatly in different Chaetomium species in regard to the carbon source media. When comparing the destructive effect of four studied species and C. murorum on craft paper, the highest activity was registered for C. globosum, C. funicola, and C. elatum.